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վף ͼһ ͼ ͼ ͼ ͼ
վף ר ޲ר ר Ц沪ͼ


а ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ ֧اߧ֧ӣ

 

19061219ڵ˵޷˹ˣ 19821110
ΣԪ˧197657գ
ܼνĴӢ۳ƺţ19661218, 19761218, 19781219պ19811218գ1öͶӢۡͷʽ£1961617գ8öѫ£1öʤѫ£2öʮ¸ѫ£2öѫ£1ö Ļѫ£1öΰսһѫ£1öѫºͶö£վ1ѣ19761218գ
⣬αݿ˹工干͹干͹͵־͹Ӣ۳ƺţɹ񹲺͹ӢۺͶӢ۳ƺţԽͶӢ۳ƺţŰӢ۳ƺţӡǡݿ˹工ˡǡ¹ɹšŰ͡Խϡ˹³ǡʡǡҲšȹö߼ѫºͽ¡
Ϲ貪򰮺úƽ£繤ϻ貪ṩ£⻹о˺ƽµȡ
Уѭķ1-6,Сء(1978),ˡ(1978),ѻĵء(1978),¼(1981)  

19061219գа¡桤ڵ޽ݶ˹һұ˼ͥ1517빲š1931꣬빲޽ݶ˹ұѧԺѧϰθѧԺίǡҵΪұ𹤳ʦְơ1939ε޲޷˹ݵίǡ

ΰսձǰߣڼޱ˵޷˹ӭӷ˹ս194110ίľδιĶ194341ε18žβΣ1944112ջٽΣ19455ڿ4βΣڲμ1945ʤıսԱµط1946ڿίһǣ4Ħάǹһǡ

1952꣬()19δϵѡΪίԱõ˹ʶֵѡΪǣһվβΣнΡ1954ι˹ڶǣεһǣڼ쵼ǴѻĵĹչʮδϣٴεѡΪίԱǡ19601964άϯϯ196410µѡΪչһǣǡ1975󽫾ΣΪԪ˧1977𣬲άϯϯίԱϯȨһ

ڲչ쵼ڼ䣬ھáĻᷢչ涼ԵĽչ˺³ijЩƫᷨȫ˹֣͹ߣ򹲲ɣˡ塱ϵ쵼ȡ彨شɾͣʹľú;ʵͻķչ͸ˮƽ˽ϴߺ͸ƣرֳƶȵԽԡ

Ȼ꣬͹۵عɼʢУӳʵϰ߹ʽں̶ܴ谭̽ǰĵ·вһеĸʵаݵзáܼŶ۵ʷìȱ㹻ʶԼӶӶʹЩìԽԽᶯҵԽԽҲ⡣70ĩ80ٶȴ󽵵͡ƬǿչعҵάӴľѿ֧ӰˮƽĽһߡ

ڸɲϣʱѭ˹ۣɲȶʤıϡΪ""ɲ߲سڲиѡ޷ѪҺصͣͣˡ塱 Ρľ棻⣬Щ߲ԱڵһЩķ⽮ţų켺γ̸ڵİʹݻ֮ڲȥǰѳ֮ơ

ʼӪĹ̺ȶΪǿŽ᲻ǷӰΪġԾԮΪնԾԮΪֶΡΪٵߣڡʱ巢ܹȫʱʱѾ족ڳȫսʹھ𲽸ϲԽ"ͥ"۵ָ£Լװ1968ݿ˹工ˣѹ﷢"ĵķ"1978֧ԽϽկ1979վװ밢ܵ˹۵Ǵ???

?ƣûĸijַʽԿǵġֲᶷΪͶȡ棻ңԡΪ򡱵ġʱ塱ķչ·ߣЩһöʱ䲻ڶٷϴˣİҪáȫΧԸ෴֯ͽ֯ǡʵȸԮͨʵӪһ廯ͳһЭԱľٽЩҹ񾭼мƻطչ

198211108ʱ30(Ī˹ʱ)Ī˹ƿͼԼԢͻȻ76ꡣڿķֹǽ¡

1964-1982Dz,һ,Ŭ,ıؽʦ,硰ƽ,ȡƽĸ.ȫβû˹18꣬ۼ·ߡ¼Сءˡ͡ѻĵءڹڣϧùҵĻչĸ,ʢ.޷ƵصĹ,ĹƸӷײڹ⣬ȨչȫԿ.Ч˼ĵ(ݿ,)Ĺ,ǰ޲һЩؽ,һЩѾʼˡ



˹֡³쵼ͨабᣬǶڲ񶾵ĻҲǡͣʱڡ֮ĻڲʱˣȻǸӽʱȻǼﵽʢΰ򣬿˹򡣡ĸĸ׵ĸҲǶԼ쵼ԭ쵼쵼 

ͬʱ棬ԵԾӵIJ

IJԪ˧70˱Ӣ˲˧С

䲪Ԯ¹Ű͸俨˹֡

ƶȫߣ˹Ϳŵͷǡ


ͯӵװDz

ιĶɲСأˮɱС

˳θܵķ ͯĺ

̽÷֯Ů

սʱڣں³
˽޲ר
λǣߵİ޲ο˸ϯʮ֮ãһĸĸᆱұߵƣԶԲĹ.

˽ͬ־ר
ֵɴսøĸ-ϯ. 1963꡶һƪڡ˧ʷ£ǷӮΪжϹҵĻ׼ ʱƶDzǿԻΪģ

Ӣƽժ1986е߰ٿȫ飩

˰汾ƽܣķ죬̬ȿ͹۹ƼҲӢĶ

ͬ־ṩ

Leonid Ilych Brezhnev а¡桤
1906, December 19: Born in Kamenskoye (later renamed Dneproderzhinsk), Ukraine. Father (Ilya Yakolevich) and grandfather worked at local iron and steel plant. Grandfather moved to Kamenskoye from Kursk in late 19th century when plant was first built. Mother, Nataliya Denisovna. One younger brother, Yakov; and younger sister, Vera. In youth, dreams of being actor
19061219գڿ˹ҮΪ˵޷˹Ϊޱ˵޷˹ˣĸǡſά棬游ڵظʮĩսʱ򣬲游ʹӿ˹˰ᵽ˿˹Үĸ⣬һܵſɷһ-ޱʱ뵱һԱ

1915-17: Attends classical gymnasium, one of six workers' children among 45 students. Likes math best; does average work, poorly in foreign languages.
1915-17꣺ѧѧϰȫ45ѧУֻвǹŮϲѧɼһ㣬ܲ
1917: Great October Socialist Revolution.
1917꣺ΰʮ

1920: Gets typhoid.
1920꣺˺

1921: Family moves to Kursk.
1921꣺ȫǨ˹ˡ

1922: Starts work at factory.
1922꣺ʼڹ

1920s: Performs in amateur theatrics.
2020μҵϷݡ

1923: Joins Komsomol.
1923꣺빲š

1924: Starts land management and reclamation technical school, Kursk.
1924꣺˹ˣʼع͸ѧУѧϰ

192?: In Kursk, attends poetry reading by Mayakovsky
192ʼĶſɷ˹ʫ衣

1927: Graduates from land management and reclamation technical school, Kursk; sent to work as land surveyor in Kursk oblast, then in Byelorussia, near Orsh, where he meets future bride, Victoria Petrovna.(еȼУҵ,Ա,ʶδ)
1927꣺˹ˣع͸ѧУҵʼ˹˲ԭزԱ󱻵׶˹¶ʲǶԼδάǡ˵޷ȡ

1928: Sent to Urals, first to Mikhailovsky, then Bisertsky raion, where he's made head of raion land department.
1928꣺׹˹ֱʲ˹ڧ֧ܧڧۣεؾָˡ

1929: Made candidate member of Communist Party.
1929꣺ΪԤԱ

1930: Returns to Kamenskoye. Enrolls in evening classes in metallurgical institute while holding a day job at the factory first as a boiler stoker, then an oilier of steam-driven machines, then a fitter. ұѧУҹУ˾¯Ĺ
1930꣺ص˹ҮұѧԺҹУڹȺɹ¯˾¯Ϳ͹ǯ

1930: Dnieper threatens to flood factory; Brezhnev made head of Emergency Flood-Control Commission.
1930ӺˮΣ̣ΪίԱĸˡ

1930 (??): Made vice chairman of Bisertsky executive committee (raiispolkom).
1930꣺αʲ˹άִίḱϯ

1931: Made deputy head of Ural Okrug land directorate.
1931꣺ίԱḱϯ

1931 Oct 24: Made full member of Communist Party.
19311024գתΪʽԱ

1932: Made party organizer at metallurgical institute; then chairman of trade-union committee; then secretary of institute party committee.
1932꣺ұѧУµֵ֯˹ϯٺΪѧԺĵίǡ

1933: Becomes director of evening metallurgical workers' school.
1933꣺ιұҹУĸˡ

1935: Graduated Arsenich Metallurgical Institute in Dneproderzhinsk (Kamenskoye); thesis "The Design of Electrostatic Cleaning of Furnace Gas in the F.E. Dzerzhinsk Factory" graded as "excellent"; gets professional designation of "engineer-heat power plant worker"; becomes shift foreman at factory's power plant; Plant's newspaper Znamya Dzerzhinki noted "he is made of strong metal."
1935꣺ӵޱ˵޷˹˵İɭұѧԺҵҵġѡݶ˹˹¯ľơΪ㡱á-糧ˡרҵְƣΪվֵ೤վıֽݶ˹ıɸƳɵˡ

1935 Nov: Drafted into army. First goes to tank school in Zabaikal military Okrug; then is a political instructor in tank company.
193511£Ӧ飬ȥ˺󱴼Ӷ̹ѧУȻΪ̹ν̵Ա

1936: Released from army.
1936꣺Ա

1936: Director Dneproderzhinsk Metallurgical Technical College.
1936꣺εޱ˵޷˹ұѧԺԺ

1937: Beginning of Stalin's great terror, i.e., `Ezhovshchina", creating many vacancies in party and government posts.
1937꣺˹ֿʼϴõϵͳпճ˲ְλ

1937 May: Made deputy chairman of executive committee (ispolkom) of Dneproderzhinsk City Soviet.
19375£εޱ˵޷˹άִίḱϯ

1938 May: Named head of a dept, Dnepropetrovsk Obkom; gets nickname of "ballerina"(RM.96).
19385£ίΪޱ˵޷˹ݵίҵ˸šԱ

1939 Feb: Secretary, Dnepropetrovsk Obkom, in charge of Defense Industry.
19392£εޱ˵޷˹ίǣ

1941 Jun: After Nazi invasion, works to evacuate population and factories; participates in choosing underground workers to be left in area; has rank of regimental commissar.
19416£ɴֺμɢԱ͹Ĺμ˶Եص¹ߵѡżίΡ

1941 Jul: Sent to front.
19417£ǰߡ

1941 Oct: Made deputy head of political administration, Southern Front; rank, brigade-commissar.
1941꣺ϷβΣüίΡ

1942 Mar: Gets first order--Order of the Red Banner for participation in successful Barvenkovo-Lazovskaya operation, commanded by Malinovsky; when asked to describe the fighting, all he says is, "It was hard."
19423£μŵ˹ָӵİͶĿ-˹սۣƽĵһöѫ-ѫ¡ʼսʱֻ˵ܼࡱ

1942 autumn: Sent to Caucases and made deputy head of political administration in the Chernomorsky group, Zakavkaz front.
1942߼߼жŵĪ˹ȺβΡ

1943 Jan: Rank changed to colonel (renaming, not promotion).
19431£򲿶ӾθαΪУδ

1943 Apr 1: Made Chief of Political Department, 18th Army; around this time, makes acquaintance with Major-General A.A. Grechko; possibly also meets Suslov and Kirilenko.
194341գ18žβΣһʱڣʶպܵսѸƣһܻ˹ͻơ

1943, April-May: Takes part in battle around Malaya Zemlya, Novorossiisk. "Until Brezhnev transformed it into a major battle 30 years later, it was a minor episode of the war."(ZM.217).
19434-5£μŵ˹ˡСءѧݧѧ ٧֧ާݧ սֻһСģսʮȴһҪսۡ

1943: German offensive in northern Caucuses stopped.
1943꣺¾ֹͣ˶Ը߼Ľ

1943, autumn: 18th Army now put in 1st Ukrainian front; Brezhnev now subordinate to Khrushchev.
194318žıΪڿһʼں³쵼֮ˡ

1944 May 1: Brezhnev, along with 500,000 other soldiers, receives "For Defense of the Caucuses" medal. Other war-era medals he eventually gets: second Order of the Red Banner; Order of the Red Star; Order of Bogdan Khmelnitski, 2nd class.
194451գʮսʿһ衰߼¡սڼ䣬»Уڶöѫ£һöѫ£һö񵤡÷˹ѫ¡

1944 Nov 2: Made Major-General.
1944102գΪٽ

1945 May 12: Made Head of Political Administration, 4th Ukrainian Front. (Official bio says its Jan; archivist says it's May); meets end of war in Prague.
1945512գڿķβΣĹٷ˵һ£ȴʾ£ڲӭսĽ

1945 Jun 24: Marches in Victory Parade, Red Square; then named chief of Political Administration, Prikarpatskii Military Okrug (formed from 4th Ukrainian Front).
1945624գμ˺쳡ʤıʽ֮│˹ڿ4齨ɣβˡ

1946 Aug: Demobilized from Army, made 1st Secretary, Zaparozhskii Obkom, Ukraine; his 2nd Secretary is A.P. Kirilenko.
19468£ӾӸԱڿίһǣίڶǻơ

1947: Gets Order of Lenin for work in reconstruction of Zaporozhstal Steel Factory.
1947ꣻؽȸѫ¡

1947 Nov 21: Named 1st Secretary, Dnepropetrovsk Obkom.
19471121գεޱ˵޷˹ίһ

1949 Jan: Elected member of Central Committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party.
1949꣺ѡڿίԱᡣ

1950, spring: Elected deputy to Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
1950괺ѡΪάίԱ

1950, spring: Sent to Moldavia as representative of Central Committee.
1950괺ΪĴĦάǡ

1950 Jul: Elected First Secretary in Moldavia. Works there with Chernenko.
19507£ѡΪĦάǵһǣƹ¡

1952 Sep: First All-Union article published in "Bolshevik"; article entitled "Criticism and Self-Criticism--A Proven Method of Cadre Education".
19529£ڡʲάˡϷ˵һƪȫԵ£Ϊɲе

1952 Oct: Delegate to 19th Party Congress; elected to congress's mandate commission; gives speech on fourth day of congress.
195210£ѡ19ڴ췢ԡ

1952 Oct: Elected to Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union at 19th Party Congress.
195210£19ϵѡίԱ

1952 Oct: Elected Candidate Member of Presidium (formerly Politburo) and Secretary of the Central Committee. Relieved of duties in Moldavia, but not given any new assignments.
195210£ѡΪչϯźίԱǡĦάǵְλȴµ

1952 Nov 7: Seeing Brezhnev, Stalin says, "What a handsome Moldavian". (Might have occurred in Oct at Party Congress--RM.67).
1952117գ˹ּ򣬳ǡӢĦάˡ10µĵڼ䣩

1953: Stalin dies.
1953꣺˹

1953: Removed from Politburo and Secretariat.
1953꣺ξֺǴ

1953 Mar: Appointed head of Political Directorate of the Army and the Navy, with rank of Lieutenant-General.
19533£Ϊ½βΣнΡ

1954 Feb: Made 2nd Secretary in Kazakhstan at start of virgin lands campaign.
19542£ѻ˶ʼι˹̹ڶ

1955 Aug: Made 1st Secretary of Kazakhstan; (previous 1st Sec, P.K. Ponomarenko, was a Malenkov man).
19558£ι˹̹һǣǰֿƷˣ

1956 Jan: Kunaev elected to Bureau of CC Kazakhstan.
19561£Үѡ˹̹ξ֡

1956 Feb: Made Secretary and candidate member of Politburo; given control over defense industry, space program, heavy industry, and capital construction.
19562£ξֺίԱҵ̡عҵ׶衣

1957 Jun: Presidum's recommendation to oust Khrushchev rejected by Central Committee. Brezhnev supports Khrushchev. During heated arguments, Brezhnev, suffering a verbal attack from Kaganovich, faints. (RM.87).
19576£չϯ⵹³᰸ίԱֺ֧³ڼʱ򿨸ŵάļҹε

1957 Jun: Elected Member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee.
19576£ѡչϯš

1957 Oct: Sputnik I launched.
195710£һ

1958: Made Deputy Chairman of CC Bureau for Russian Federation Affairs (Bur CC CPSU of RSFSR).
1958꣺չ˹񲿸ϯϯ

1959: Visits American exhibition in Moscow.
1959꣺Ī˹Ʋιչᡣ

1959: Elected Second Secretary of CC.
1959꣺ѡΪչڶǡ

1960 May - 1963: President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. (Giving up Secretary position). Gets reputation in West as best-dressed Soviet leader.
19605-1963꣺άϯϯٵεǣΪװ쵼ˡ

1960 Sep: Visits German Democratic Republic.
19609£¹

1961 Feb: When flying to Africa, his plane is shot at by French fighters, claiming he was off course. (RM.94)
19612£ڷ;Уķɻ⵽սݳʱƫ˺ߡ

1961 Apr: Following Gagarin's space flight, Brezhnev is made Hero of Socialist Labor for his contribution to the development of rocketry and for ensuring the success of the space flight.
19614£żӼ̫շУԻķչ̫շʤĹף衰ͶӢۡƺš

1961 Sep: Visits Finland.
19612£ʷ

1963: Elected Secretary of CC, replacing Kozlov.
1963꣺ѡΪǣ

1964 Apr: Delivers main speech at Khrushchev's birthday party.
19644£ں³Ϸּ

1964 Oct 5: Leads delegation to East Germany for its 15th anniversary.
1964105գŲμӶº15졣

1964 Oct: Khrushchev ousted.
196410£³̨

1964 Oct 14: Elected First Secretary of CC CPSU.
19641014գѡչһǡ

1964: Named Chairman of Defense Soviet.
1964꣺ιίԱϯ

1965 May: In speech commemorating 20th anniversary of defeat of German fascism, mentions Stalin positively.
19655£ڼսʤ20Ľл˹֡

1965 May: Given Hero of Soviet Union in recognition of his wartime service.
19655£ΪԼսеĹ䷢Ӣ۳ƺš

1965-1966: Prior to 23rd Party Congress power struggle emerges between Suslov and Shelepin as possible First Secretaries. This only improves Brezhnev's position. Podgorny and Kosygin support Brezhnev because a "weak" First Secretary improves their own security.
1965-1966꣺չʮ˹лƽ֮Ӧһǵѡͻγͻٴμӹ˲ĵλ¸ںͿֲ֧Ϊһųġһǻǵİȫ

1966112-17: ɹţѺԼӳ20ꡣ

1966 Apr: 23rd Party Congress deletes regulation about mandatory regular changes in leading party posts; changes Brezhnev's title to "General Secretary".
19664£չʮϳ˵ĸɲڱĹ涨ͷαˡǡ

1966 Dec 19: 60th Birthday. Given Hero of Soviet Union Medal.
19661119գʮգһλӢ۳ƺš

1967 May: Semichastnii removed as head of KGB; Shelepin removed from post of Secretary.
19675£л˹ڱ˸ϯְлƽǴ

1967929: ڿͰ׶˹СϰĹٱȽѸκβߡ

1967113: ϯʮ¸50ףᣬΪΰʤ50꡷ı״ĸ

1967 Dec 8: Visits Czechoslovakia.
1967118գʽݿ˹工ˡ

1968: Gets Order of Lenin with Gold Star and title of Hero of the Soviet Union for bravery during the war.
1968꣺սеӢ±ֶǵѫºӢ۳ƺš

1968 Feb-Mar: Participates in Plenum of Moscow City Committee in which policy of "tightening of the screws" in ideology and culture is openly declared.
19682-3£μĪ˹ίᣬڻϹڷʶ̬Ļڵġսߡ

1968 Jul: Says that if "revisionist" tendencies win in Czechoslovakia, he will have to resign.(GA,147)
19687£ߡڽݿ˹工˵óѣְ

1968 Aug 20: Soviet and Warsaw Pact troops enter Czechoslovakia to suppress Prague Spring.
1968820գͻɳӽݿ˹工ѹ֮

196965-17: 繲͹˵ʻĪ˹ٿйʡǵȼ⣬μӣܺչ˶Ҫԣǡĵȴۡ

1969, spring: Border clashes with China.
1969괺ձ߾ͻ

1969 Dec: Rehabilitation of Stalin planned for celebration of his 90th birthday. Plan aborted after protests for Polish and Hungarian parties.
196911£ƻ˹ֵ90ʱΪƽͲͬ־ķԶdz

1970: Kulakov becomes candidate member of Politburo.
1970꣺ƷΪξֺίԱ

1971330-49գٿʷԵչʮĴ󣬷һϵڷչʱ񾭼õߡ

19718£Ӫںں֮ȼ٣ĦںӾϰ

19711025-30գʷ״ηҡ

1971111գȰ氺ɿͬ־ڶϲȡIJԡ

1972 May: Nixon visits Moscow. Detente begins.
19725£ɷĪ˹ƣϵʼ͡

1972 May 26: Brezhnev & Nixon sign SALT Treaty. SALT II Negotiations begin.
1972526գǩսԺЭսԺڶ̸пʼ

1972 Oct: US & USSR reach agreements on marine shipping, settlement of lend-lease accounts, credits, and trade.
197210£DZͧޡŴóЭ顣

1973: Visits Czechoslovakia. Says, "Many pages in my life are associated with your beautiful country."
1973꣺ʽݿ˹工ʱ˵еҳĹһ𡣡

1973 May: Visits West Germany.
19735£¡

1973 Jun 16: Arrives in USA for state visit.
1973616գʼй·ʡ

1973 Jun 19: Meets with members of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
1973619գԺϵίԱԱ

1973 June 22: Signs Agreement on Prevention of Nuclear War with the US.
1973622գǩԼֹս

1973 Jun 24: Delivers address on American TV.
1973624գ´ǡ

1973: Andropov becomes full member of Politburo.
1973꣺޲ΪξίԱ

1973 Jul: Awarded Lenin Prize "For the Promotion of Peace Among Nations".
19737£ΪΪʺƽҵĹסƽ¡

1973 Nov 26: Arrives in India for a visit. Concludes treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation.
19731126գʼӡȡǩƽѺúЭԼ

1974 Jan: Visits Cuba.
19741£ʹŰ͡

1974 Summer: Nixon visits Moscow.
1974ģɷĪ˹ơ

1974 Jul: Visits Poland.
19747£ʲ

1974 Nov 23: Ford-Brezhnev summit in Vladivostok.
19741123գ-ںٿ

1974 Dec: Visits Mongolia.
197412£ɹš

1974 Dec: Visits France.
197412£ʷ

1974 Dec: Suffers heart attack. Disappears from public view. (ZM.80)
197412£ಡڹʧ

1975 Feb: Reemerges in public.
19752£ڹڳ³֡

1975 Feb: Soviet-British summit in Moscow with Harold Wilson.
19752£޵¡ѷĪ˹ƿʼӢᡣ

1975 Jul: Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft take off for US-Soviet linkup in outer space.
19757£İ޷ɴ˷ɴ̫նԽӡ

1975 Jul: Meets visiting U.S. Senators.
19757£õԱ

1975 Jul 31th: Addresses Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Helsinki.
1975731գںնŷްȫ´ǡ

1975 Sep: Meets Soyuz-Apollo astronauts in Kremlin.
19759£ڿķֹ-Ա

1975 Oct: French Preisdent d'Estaing visits Brezhnev in Moscow.
197510£ͳ˹̹Ī˹ƻ

1975 Nov: Awarded F. Joliot-Curie Gold Medal of Peace.
197511£Լ-ʺƽ¡

1975: The worst agricultural year of Brezhnev's tenure. (ZM.78)
1975꣺ũҵһꡣ

1976 Feb: 25th -Mar 5th: Party Congress. Delivers 6-hour report. Dmitri Polyansky made scapegoat for bad 1975 harvest and not reelected to Politburo. Kulakov's position consolidated.(ZM.79)
1976225-35գչʮСʱı档˹Ϊ1975ũҵճɵѡξ֡Ʒĵλȹ̡

1976 May 28th: Signs Treaty on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes with the US.
1976528գǩ𡶽ֹºʵЭ

1976 May: Given rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.
19765£Ԫ˧Ρ

1976 Oct: USSR concludes treaty of friendship and cooperation with Angola.
197610£밲ǩѺúԼ

1976 Nov: Given Czechoslovak decorations.
197612£ݿ˹工˽¡

1976 Dec 19th: 70th Birthday. According to official biography, "He was in the prime of his creative strength and energy."
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1977 Jan: Gives speech in Tula.
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1977 Mar: Gives speech at 16th Congress of Soviet Trade Unions.
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1977 May: Draft of new Constitution ready. Brezhnev is chairman of Constitutional Commission.
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1977 Jun: Visits France.
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1977 Jun 16: Elected President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, replacing Podgorny.
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1977, September 21: Nuclear nonproliferation pact signed.
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1977 Oct 5: Supreme Soviet meets to begin discussion of new Constitution; Brezhnev gives speech.
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1977 October 7: New Constitution adopted. Brezhnev gives speech acknowledging contribution of many, including M.S. Gorbachev.
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1977: Chernenko, Brezhnev's personal chief of staff, made candidate member of Politburo.
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1978 Feb: Presents Hero of Socialist Labor award to Kulakov on his 60th birthday.
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1978 May: Visits West Germany.
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1978 Jul: Absent from Kulakov's funeral (as are Kosygin & Suslov). Reason for death unclear-officially, his heart "stopped".
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1978 Sep: On way to Baku, stops in Mineralnye Vody; met by Gorbachev and others who report on good harvest.
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1978 Nov 27: Gorbachev made Secretary of CC, responsible for agriculture. Shevarnadze elected candidate member of Politburo. Chernenko made full member of Politburo.
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197911: ӦϹ̿֯ͯشʵӽ

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1979 Jun 14: Signs SALT II with Carter.
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1979: Gorbachev becomes candidate member of Politburo.
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1979 Dec 28: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Decision to invade taken not by Politburo, but by informal meeting of several leaders. (GA,12)
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1980: Following American grain embargo, preliminary work done on 10-year Food Program. Work on this program was Gorbachev's chief task.
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1980: Sakharov exiled to Gorky.
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1980: Bad harvest. Topsoil erosion accelerates. Food imports increase.
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1980 Oct: Gorbachev promoted from candidate to full member of Politburo.
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1981: 3rd bad harvest in a row. Food Program must be delayed.
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1981 Feb 23: Addresses 26th Party Congress.
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1981 Mar 3: Final Session of 26th Congress.
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1981 Apr: Visits Czechoslovakia for 16th Czech Party Conference.
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1981 May 9: Dedicates Ukrainian State History Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War in Kiev.
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1981 May 5: Lays wreath at eternal flame in Tbilisi.
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1981 May 25: Meets Georgian Party leaders in Tbilisi.
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1981 May 27: Meets Jordan's King Hussein.
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1981 Jun 2 & 17: Give medals to cosmonauts.
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1981 Sep 15: Gives medals to ministers of defense of GDR and Cuba.
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1981 Sep 24: Gives Order of Lenin and second Hammer and Sickle Hero of Socialist Medal to Chernenko.
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1981 Oct 26: Meets Pres. of Yemen Arab Republic Ali Abdall Salekh.
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1981 Nov 2: Talks with Indira Ghandi on phone.
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1981 Nov 3: Published interview with West German "Spiegel".
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1981 Nov 16: Gives speech at Party Plenum.
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1981 Nov 22-25: Visits West Germany.
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1981 Dec 4: Meets with Warsaw Pact ministers of defense.
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1981 Dec 15: Meets scientific delegation from Vatican.
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1981 Dec 16: Gets "Sun of Freedom" medal from Afghanistan's B.Karmal; meets with Arman Hammer.
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1981 Dec 19: 75th birthday. Receives Order of Lenin and "Gold Star-Hero of the Soviet Union" medal. Also receives medals from Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Romania, Czechoslovakia.
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1982 Mar: Scheduled announcement of Food Program delayed because Brezhnev is ill.
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1982 Mar 3: Meets with Jaruzelski, 1st Sec & Chairman of Soviet of Ministers of Poland.
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1982 Mar 16: Addresses 17th Congress of Trade Unions.
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1982 Mar 17: Gets Gold Medal from International Federation of Trade Unions.
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1982 Mar 18: Meets Laos Prime Minister K. Fomvikhan (sp?). Gets Laos's "Golden Medal of the Nation".
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1982 Mar 23: Visits tractor factory, airplane factory, and kolkhoz near Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
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1982 Mar 24: In Uzbekistan, gives republic Order of Lenin.
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1982 Mar 25: Meets with Uzbek CC.
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1982 Mar: On way back from Uzbekistan, suffers mild stroke. Is unconscious for several days; lost power of speech for several weeks.
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1982 May 4: Meets Nicaragua's D. Ortega.
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1982 May 18: Gives speech at 19th Komsomol Congress.
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1982 May 26: Meets with Austrian President Kirchslager (sp?).
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1982 May 26: Get medal "In memory of the 1500th anniversary of Kiev".
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1982 May 31: Gets Order of Ho Chi Minh from Lee Zuan.
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1982 Jun 2: Meets with CSSP's Husak.
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1982 Jun 22: Meets G. Filipov, Chairman of Bulgarian Soviet of Ministers. Gets Bulgarian medal.
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1982 Aug 16: Meets with Jaruzelski (sp) in Crimea. Chernenko there.
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1982 Sep: In Baku, reads wrong speech for seven minutes until an aide points out the error and gives him the right speech.
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1982 Nov 7: Stands for hours in the cold on Lenin's Mausoleum to watch parade.
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1982 Nov 10: Dies from heart attack at 8:30 A.M.
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