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ҹյ»ַԼ̨ǰĻ

ԭ

1939յ»ַԼĺճʹ໰⡣ǩԼ󣬿ķֹ̩ȻԼʹҷԵսΣգŷսµĿһԼΪȫƽ1Īз򣩣ǻ̡յ»ַЭֺƽߵĽЭյĺƽ彨ķչë󶫣2ά뷨˹˵ʵʱҵشʮĩĹ˶ɵĹʣǶΡҹĺڰԱ˵ɼҷӣҰɪ˹գͬչȨɾѵͬĸߣӳ¶㡢ɳ¹Ʋʲά˵ۼֵ֮3¶㣩򳹵׷ʮ¸޲׼רʷҪԣɳ

ۿɷһţʲ׼ѧٴ˳ɫаͨ˼ԴﵽƽȵȫѾʹϵ¹һֱѭͬ·ͨȨġġǾõġɲƽȵᡣ˵ͷ˹屾ͬġ4Үˣ

ʷתԶϡսڲĻ̿־ѹָУδΪнȡɴĸҵս˹Ⱥij֣ռֿ˶Ķ죬ƺ֤Ī˹ƶԵ¡ԡޱӢʮ󣬵˶ϰնӪġȻʱȴֽһˣ׼Աȵı仯ʹ˼ڡ㹲а񡹵ĸʢһʱʲ׼ִʷڹ͵õռλԭ˼ʵãһʱġۣͬùѪͷʽȡ֣1939꡸յ¡˶Ϊذը󡹻ߡձ˹ֱΪ۵ıȻĹӶǻġڼ̳רϹ˼봫ͳIJСԹ˺彨˰̣ǻȡϴı׼̬5

ڹڴӹ˽׼յԼǰհףשһսĵ۹ͻĪ˹ƶԵ½˵ԭ򣻹ʹ˺ڶкηӦԴԼⲿ׼ıϵΪIJļҪ㡣

ǿľϣԴ̵Ȩ԰Ȩ

ʮѧΪսͿĨһš˹ʥսʹףԷʹظġȫԵġΪ˽ƽѾκιһŬ6ŲףʣҪ޷ǡһ෸ĺڰʷ޳ҵаսǾǵߡ7𼪶ν嵨ġʵ龿أ

ʮϰҶŷ޴½ҵΣʳͻս빤˸ʲݣ˰۹壬ͻɽ֮졸ŷޡҲµľɰƴάּӶսż͵ҪϸֵĽ£׷ҸϵصɱݱΪսнں񾭶һۡ1914-1918Ĺս˽ǧЭԼ˾Ԫ˧˵ԼǺƽǶʮս

ʮ¹¢ʱѡ˹˶ȡͳִˢºĹŻÿֲ֯ˣ̼ҵ̶꣬µ۹ֻ1936սˣ1937ձȫ湥й1938괺¹̲µͬ9£ǿǩĽЭ¹̲ݿˡڴ֮ǰⷨͷΧɽף1935꣩ڴ֮ӢվڻΧɽף1939꣩ķŬɢ̸Уҵӡмҡ⽻뽫ǺȫĦչս̸ø19394£¹ͳ˧ָ׽⡹81939ģŹķ¼ʱߵڶսҡ

ʱԽѣвӢְѾԽȣ·ǿθִСַи£Ŀȴһ£ԴгκӮþ׬ȡĶ˸ĿǰвʹͳεѰŽᣬŵ̽ĵߡԳơЭ919389£׶ַ¡Ӣŷ޺ƽ֧ҲǷҪУԺƽֶνйϵ⡭Ҳҵôҡ⡪ܵķ10Ųף

ȻǸвǿĹͬ룬˭˭԰ժңȴ̸ףάңŲסī˹飬ǰԴг䣬Ͼʵڡȡʲ׼·ߵľôۣʹڵõʵǣ¹Ӧã֤ԼӵΪԭԴϣգ11ԡ̲͵ȡ׶˹ڿǧ˿ڵĵ¹δ棬DZزٵġ12带ʱפӢʹڵµ۵ķâʢӢòݿˣûֹ㷨²ͷǵθڣűؾߡеɵ¹ڶŷжͬĹϵȷʵܲãǺϣһ޹壬Ҳ֪úӢҲڶԴ½Įģɵ¹ȡŷͶŷİȨ13𼪶

ػΧǰҹλҶһЭʱ׼кͽĴὲ̳ġˮ޹غּʱӣΪʵDZڵĺκֶξʹãκν˶пܡDzҪ±˵׷¡ı䣬ͬ׵·14𼪶˵Ӣһ߾о̸Уһ¹нӴʱֵݱ䣬һСǹҵӢ۹ӣ𼪶ͺϡΣ侲ؿһս¿ûǿĶսߣŷͲķûжҲͲǿĶսߡ15شپ߾޽ͬˡȻӢȦɺʧ16ʹ۹ͷ

1939823գǩַԼҪ֤ұ˴˼κжκΪκιԼһΪжΪĶʱԼһõκ֧֡ԼκһֱӻӵּڷһκιҼš17⣬˫йϷԼ18շļĴڣһܺ󣬵Ⱥվڷȡò־ս1940ģ̲޵ĺ

µľߣڷɴ⶷ǵĸһյºԼ̹ϣշ˾Ľս߱Զ19ֻ˹˴ڵԾɽ׼ļأĪ˹Ƶľ涯ǰ᣿ شЩ֮ǰDZյ³ġܺߡҵĽ׼ʣԼʮȺԺʲУɳȨݵĽɫαƺƽ̶˭һǹ˭ԣ˭أսǷ㱣

ʲ׼ʱֵ̰

ҵڵ۹ս޲׼ʷҡ1920꣬ڷ۲Ӧ£ն֧Ԯŷ˵ĻɳԶӪŰɱսвݼʱѪͶ״Ӣľ±ӻʮһֱǷʲάǰڡ20𼪶ɳͺ޹ΪĶʮʲάǰڡԾ壨ӵᵽڿˣϵͳߣݼսɱ̫ͽ۾˵ֲչͲʲô۹21ë󶫣Զ񡪡ھȣɳϰԵõףɳʵҵ;ͬŵ۹Σִ񣬶ף˹׸˧ӡ22ÿз紵ݶ˧͹DZһ߽貨սڲǵ¾зأ231939818ղʹJuliusz Lukasiewicz 뷨ⳤ̸

ĽЭĴǿԽݿֱ֪ǣʲ׼ͬ硣19389£ɳ񷢳ͨ뺣Ҫ󡸹黹Ľ24101գӶ־ͬʱݿҲûٵͷҵȺʵ˲ȦĹҵʵ25ú߶Դ˴Ρ򡹼Ϊ26

1939²սв׼һսϲ򶷵ĿעҪڹũϣʹ޷⡣شʱֱ仯սռֳͳΣԹũij̶ȡƺʽž޴Ӱ죬ճᾭѹн׼ìܼһսϵй˸ֳط籩˭Ҷ϶սʱ峹ĿˣȻǿսǰҹʮ¸Դʹ˵䡪չȴ̵ɻУһչ루˹ҵרϹŴĶdz۹ʵΪ߼1939걩¶쾡¡

Ų㣺Լξ

Ϊ޲׼ĺӣ˹͹ԼĹ档͹ڶԣҪȷʹʹ㷺ȺڹĹ壬ϡְҵԱƶڹһĺΪҪһĻˮƽ͹ʶԣijԶ·ڹʸʤԮЭ޲׼˶ʹֹȨʹȫԱȲ޲ڵתۣ

20кڣնִԹʴѹƶȻ1936ܷΪ壩򵥵˵չſɶΪ˹ҵIJðʹȨţȽֹ˲֣Ըأѹʲ׼ơӽ׼˵˹һԸڹ˹ƤϣߵĸζάԱΪһƶȣȨսᣬԱȱάչáʵ䱸ͻ˹ʾ¸棩һ棬Ȩ¹˽׼ʧȥȨʹáðͳμֻһͷ桢桢棬ֻȥάָ߸ϵȨλκﶼڡ⡯27Ļ

ڲ߶ʷǰ;ţ֧άңľòԵ֧顪ȶԣѳʵģ޲׼ʤأͬʱɫɫСʲ׼ɷ֣ŵƽ壩ֱˣĻࣨƫڽȼݣʱʱشӹٷ׻ķ϶ĪзԡܶͬһѪģòڿͰ׶˹˵޶ԡ28Ϊռ첨绤ӸСչͷ֪ڹҰխڷֱλʶʮ㣨ʱϧΪȫֳԶ滮˹ʱмֲںʧģƻóչľ˽ñרȨűǿ޲׼쵼ɫġнͷӣԹвżĻͳ͹ҴǼмְеĪԱ;η

Թ˵ճ°š·ߵ˼˹ֺĪз֮óСȦ̸롸䡹쵼DzݣȺԷɥʧº⹤˸ȡͻƻרϵͳά״ͨڼģʻغ֯磬Ī˹£˽ַܵƸ쵼㣬ʮ¸źɾԻڲĻǸɺΧȺڣһΪɹͬʱ20ֵĹż֯ԭʹʵΪյԼǰ๲±䣬Ϊƻĺɫ䡣

Īз̸ϷԼһչŵʵ塸ͨ˼ά

յԼ֣ܲԼα˵硡ٷȻʸڷ29ĪзҲһٱҥѹûʲôԼ̫ˣҸεظ㣬˵ȫǣĻԡ30ȥ꣨1986ֱ꣩ʼ£رʾҲǵˡ31ʵ롸ۡһԼΪʵ񲢲ؼյֵĬжڴ°Ѵ˵еԼʾȫ硣ĪзļĴڣȴ֤ʵ˽ʵʣ仰˵ױڲ޵ĺڿ׶˹Ħߵĵ̻֣Ǻ带19391939带עԺǾ̸ˣµʮ¼õãҷǷݺô32Ī޵ػ

¸ʮ꣬յչܼҡdzԵز˹żŷĻԭ򣺡Һʱ֮䣬ijЭ͵һޣΧҵΧ带̸ʱ򣬾˵ڣϷֺģʱԭ33˹ֵǷĪ˹ʼѹֱǰϦչԼԼδΥʷ׼ͨеĹԼǩʵΪܡ34

ӹԱҵļǶȿķֹλ˳ᢵġסͬ죬ǻмǿöԱ翨ŵά棩ɫͬʱ๤籴ǣͨ⽻֮Īз򣩡붫ʷѧй۵˹ִδ³˵äϣյı֤35ؼš项κζʼѭšĶԵ¹ԭ򡣹Ϸֲڼ䣬¾ͼʳռַݵʯͻغ·Ŧ˫Ϸ˹¾36ͬսʹϣЭ371940վǰ觺ȡöŷʯ͹ҵɴҪԴأںۿڵԼȨʹ¾ǡԡץþ¶׼ϣԪ˧ӦԼٱƽĹʴ±䣬Ī˹Ƹ߲Ա޷磻1939819415£װеվͬʱҲơ120ʦ300ʦн100̹Ħлʦƽ񾭼þ»˹ּŵıս꣬Ϊʤ춨ʻ

Ȼɾ͵δۣˡǰôץᣬԹ˹Ҹǰ;ĮģĿ׬Ӯ޲ڵľ֯ı뽻ף¶ϵȺ˶ޣִȨžԪأĪ˹յԼǰᡣԼ׼̼Ϊҽ׵Ľֱʱ̣ξίԱڹ38³ط򣩡ǾһоŪڹ֮УֻҪֻ̼ܶɡȻ˹¹ַҹַЭΪӮһĺƽʱͻ׼39˹֣ұ۸ϻ˹ΰսңϣͬǩԼʱûձкշðɣյ£˴Ӵʵ40Īз򣩡

մմϲĪ˿ǣֵͬʱЩȨıֶ׷Ƚͷת򡪡1939깲ʸɴӢ˫ĿĶǵ۹ĿģΪֳذֳغΧͳȨӶԵսë󶫣41ת㲻ɵĹĵڶսһʼ;з˹սͽսʣؽҲ֮һIJսֻǼǿҲȷʵǿ˵ڶսķ˹ĺͽսʡ˹֣42

1940ŷѪڣ࿭ɴ̰ʳ43µĻնһڵ˰ѽ׽44ʼijЩ¡Ϊɴʾ⣬ʵķת

 

ǩԼھı仯


̸ǩֻѺĪ˹ƴģظȫȫ磬յԼڡ͵־ķչͷ١Īз45ǡԼϵξúЭ֤˵¹ӵһȫĶ⣬ྭľ԰¹ιʹܹʵ߾Ĺ桹46

չ丽ӹ컹˹һֻҰ޲ȫŷ47ȴЦ˫һ̯ǻǵˣƱˣ㲻ǵˡ48Ƶظյ꣺ҹͬ¹Ĺϵ׸ˡżǿѺùϵʵʺԼȡƽŬ·߷չʼΪһǿĵ¹ŷ޳־úƽزٵ49Īз򣩡һĪͬ־ׯϳϿҵյ֮õѺùϵdzʱżȻǣյĻ֮ϡ50ٴָҹϸЭ˵߾һȡʩʱָΧϵжעյ¹ϵгĦĿԣЭҲ֤˵¹ԶİȫС51˫ͷҲһȴûȡ1939ףϣµף˹ٳյ»ص磺Ѫɵյ52߱ɳΪںι̵ĹϵԼά˹֡53

ŷ˵Ī˹ƴϢֱѡʵõһѡѹ˶еӰţʯ̿͡ʯһʲ׼ۡĻڱλ仯ҪǰȻ෴ָǡʸ֧˶۹ʱּۻ۵ij롹541935ɴ̨ĶвĪ˹Ҫ󹲲ʸ֧ƴͷ˹ͳһսߡ55ԡɡսСɻһ𣬲ɥʧԭͬˣߡֱǰĪ˹ƻǿΪνԹҡ͡ҡ19393չʮ˴˹ֵα棩ߡ˹ѹ߷˰ŪӪ˹ͳ߶ԸɡµһϵС56193991գᵳͶƱ֧ٽսծͳṩ֧֣Ϊβ·ߵǷ켫ı־

յԼ󣬹ʵھһҹ֮Ŀȫǣβ·ɡӺٱʲ׼翼ӶսΪЭɴ⹮̾ռ죬չٿصĸ쵼д¹ʷһҳ

ռĹӸʵʱҸӹη˹

ιԣյǩԼĵգһҧַЭǰߵĹߣؽ߾ȫֹϣս571939823ա˵ۡȺƽ 󷨹ξзԣ򶨵ؽ͡ЭΨһþǹ̺ƽɲᣬŷ޺ֳصκһزǿռ58걾ӳӹʷ˹--ϣյ¹ΪǷɿսĻס59Աʫ·סLouis AragonȰšշӢЭƽĻʯõرյ»ַЭ䡹60ŵķѸ⵽Ϸʹ⣬һͷԵĹ·ߴŲƿʼˡ

97գ˹ֽӼҪ쵼㣬ԻսʱҼ֮СǴֲǻ⡣ܼϣնҡеʱңӢܲ61193997ռױʻ̸¼ֽ׶ڣʱҵĹӦüԱͷս62˹һͬ־֤ԼԹ˽׼޸֪ûȤҲ⣻ġԱͷսͬɴⷴӢ

98գִίͨ飬ҪӢ֧·ߡ63ֹͣ˹Ӧɴ¹ɡһսҪƽĹң컹ǴԵӢͷ޳սȥ64Īз򣩣ҪӢΪɶսΪūЩҶսΪӷ˹սΪɵʤս65

194046£¾ǧ绢бŷɴ£622գͶͬ49գڸ󹲼ŷָʾҪչŷӦҪ۹սƽӢ۹ԼΪڱŷսĹߡӢ˹άսеĵ۹ߣʹ¹ȡӦĵ۹Բߣ׶ءսӼڶʴӦսҪΣ˹άǸ˵۹ɿսΪ֧˷ս׼ԸͬΡ޲ڵĽɫĪ˹ơŷηԵ۹սȡƽָʾعԿչƽ˶ΪҪ66

뷢˻˱Ȼ19406ºɹۿĻ༭£Ҫȷռֵܵ಻󣬷׷ͶΪɴռͿ֬Ĩ۵ġƽ˶ȥ׶ӻϣϯɭԳƵ¾ռʵǡ¹ӢͼԵΪѸٻӦɴ˿ɼĿǰһ̶ȵޣӦȫӢͼҹսĽȨ𣩻Ȼʧսģƽỹdzֵɡ67ϯձƵؽ͵Ų뵳ѵȨͬУָܴϸսʱƶȣ˶ܹϷ汨ֽ68һΩռ߱Ĵ68գʡս̺Ų׶ٿξ飬ľǽ˽׼ͳһսߣڹ˵Ӱ죬㷺󹲲Ӱ졹69߿ɹΪҪ󣺸Ųƽָҵطͣȶ70ٲȻ̫ƽʢ

ȡý׶ʤɴ⵱ϣָҵԹӦӴļתΪˣ¾ɴ⵳ɻӴߵƽҵƻλӦأһǰʻֵȵСʲ׼񣬿šڼ˷˹ߵĻϱƽ֯尲ȫڸʱҿչʲ׼ߵĶЩ˲˶Աɶ𺦣ı˹ߴЭ71һ½⽻תĪ˹ƵĺСϵԼæı˹ߴЭˣ

ڱŷŲر߹˽׼ƽĵζŹҺڲŽҵĿںǡεɳһŽʵҪǰ᡹72ڷ֯˵ijط73·ƹƺԸΪС19406£ſˡſίԱĦаĪ˹ƻعԽͬռ쵱ֵȶϵȡϷء˵7³¹פʹСԱΪ׵ķŻ棬صǵ¹ʹݡ̸аıʾżѡҪֺƽؽ˭ܵΣֻŻؽǡޡխͳκζԵƾٶķʲ׼̬չ׵ȥˡǣԭˣΪǡעҪȨץίԱᣬһǵĵҲչ194076նſĪ˹Ƶı棩74

Ժ󲻾ãָʾ֯񹤳ίԱͻίԱ᡹ȫָѸٵõɴ⵳פ˹ı뷨ŻʱӦĿǰЩŶԣԱʹת֯ίԱǸ⣬ˣԼ֯ⷽ棬·κ鷳751940720նſĪ˹Ƶı棩

Է˹ġ⡹롸ʾá̬أǽ档

·dzϯ˵Ľ˻飬Լӿ죨ͣҵ¿Ľ̡ǽٴٿӻ飬Ա㶽Ǹ졢ѹץЩ;Աӵҵ֯Ҫδ8ȡͼӰijɼ76̸дĦа

˵չ߼ɲҲյ½ֱ۾㶡ǹ¹˹վȫ෴ϣͻȻȴѡһ¼ĺ77³򣩣ʱĹ˵Ҫ޲ڵĽ׼ѹԷΪڶ԰빫֧ɴϲǣͬ־ίԱ˵顣ƾŽ׼ֱ׶֯๤֧׷ָҵ¾֡ǹ˿ѹߡֹϵԼڹе󣩡ͼȡõ¾ɳ浳ͼ֤ɴȷá78а̽ҪɴйӴܵ⡪˴ȥ¹ʹ͡棬ֻԽɴ˶79Ա쵼˸꼪ҶɱǣżƵ֯ԭͶäĿΣˣʹ޷쵼ijеóνۣϾÿ׵ĸ߱ͽɫŵϵĵλ80¹̨

ȺڻãȻֻ֪λ棻ֵ¢ϾͷȴԼڼѣμָԭյӰ۵Ķ¹ԱǹҹС81Ϊ·ķָֹռ̶ͬȵأɴ⣬ԼҲ³ٵһѡ193919406£հȫشӸŵȺ¹Ա½תɴ鱨š

ɴDz°Աľ

ʮԺǧƵĵ¹ԱնЩ뷨˹צİֳԱɭѧ뺺ͷˣδ뵽гһջά⵽ɱš1936-1938Ĵϴλ¹ίԱ82ĵݼӪƵܸδǵĹͽDzøҵĶ˵ȴǡгһǻᱻDzɴ¹ȷҪģһλˡ¹Աء ¹쵼˸ӣĻ䡣

1938꣬ء194023գ̵ͬ־µԱѺĪ˹ƣõ֪ͨݽδչ֡ҲгУձеֻţЩԻ͵޵ĺDz֪ѱվռ죩յﲼ˹ءзĿˣյ½أһжˣھĬˡһĻ

һʿѺǰ紦·ţӭһȺӣɴٺػʺ򡣰ѷ˵Ϻٱǹţʱ˼ͬ־˱ǽɴ⣻аգ1933 ǰ༭һṤѱ˹ȱϯд̡˶Ϲţźˡ83

Զ뿪˹ˣԭ¹ίԱάڶսΪǸɣϯפնбɵߣͨԱʸ߼ɲǰδеľ尾84

յЭ֮ҹȴ

ʮĩһСʲάˣĻ˹ɷлʲо˹ּų˽׼ֶѶѻɽʵ޿ɣţЩ׵Ļƭʹ˽׼ֱܣ85Ǵˡ

˹ҳʼ׶ʾijɾͺDZõǶԼļȶλģҲùʹܡάתĪ˹ƷŷδӷӭռеõʵݣȻѰǡɴãȺõģռ״ģΪսṩȶ󷽣ؽռ쵱ַ86򣩣ָʾֶν¶ƲúͿһռ쵱׵йԱ87߶¡ƤˣͰཻ׵ļ֤88

ɴ󣬷ֵܵͶֿ˶յǰдʿʷʫ棻ǧּ׺ĻԻսսؽľ漣1949ĸʤʹйΪĽŵЩնӪ˹ֱṩ˼ȡ֮ߵʱʵ սʱĵش⹲Ӧ룬Ϊʺƽ׶ࣻǷֳصͬšֵܰУڲһµؽΡĹãã˼Ҹ뻶֡89ʮնĶ

յЭأ˿̹ĵıѡ𺳺;أûб˽׼μ̫»̫æµĶģʹרעڣеģһǹ˴£κʧƺԭ»ԣΪҸоɹߡʷĹԶϡǿ۷ʱ̣Ӫ˸٣ʹ׼ֵܸ˰ꡣ

ͬһ޷̤Ρ21ͳвȺµĹϷ𲢣˭ҶһսΪʱ޲ڵķǰɢϸ飬ȴѰʱϲµĽ֣ǧĽ׼սʿѪ֤Щ·ͨʧܣǵΣǴʤ֮š

09/05/05

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1 1939831Īзάdzȫϵı
2 ë󶫡ڹƶ»ձżߵ̸һһգ
3 19401128ճ¶㡸ҵĸ¶ĺš
4 Үˡͨū֮·
5ֵ๲֮һȫչΪյЭ绤1918նҵĵжж¹ǩ˹غԼ20ͬӢĵжж¹ǩַЭhttp/www.vkpb.ru/gpw/isolation2.html . - .
6 193993άŲסҹ¹ս״̬
7 1940513 ˹١𼪶ܷ׵ֻѪ͡ͺˮ
8 ADAP. Serie D. Bd. VI. Baden-Baden, 1961. Dok. 149
9ͬʱƶһܸ
10 ܧڧ٧ڧ, 1938-1939: ܧާ֧ߧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ... .1. .6.
11 193938ϣڵ¹硢ýɴ⵳ҪʿϵĽ
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13 ͬ
14 ͬע4
15˹١𼪶ڶս¼(1)ƽڶʮ¡֮ա
16 19393Ų˽żΡפĪ˹ƵӢλߣӢǩԼȨΪշȽż̸ڼ䣬ӢһЩ飬ҪΪٵ޽Ӣ֮Ч5-10ꡢԮڵķԻԼŷͶŷҵİȫ۵޽໥Ԯķʽ͹ģľЭ顣
171939824այԼݡȫ£ά干͹͵¹Ӽǿյ¼ƽҵԸ1926ԼĻΪЭ飺
1.Լ˫֤ұ˴˼κжκΪκι
2.ԼһΪжΪĶʱԼһõκ֧֡
3.Լ˫󽫱˴˱ϵԱǹͬйص⽻鱨Э̡
4.ԼκһֱӻӵּڷһκιҼš
5.Լ˫ijϻϷִʱԼ˫ӦֻͨƽѺõؽ߱ҪʱίԱᣬԱЩ˻ִ
6.ԼЧΪʮꡣǵԼһǰһֹ֪ͨԼΪԶӳꡣ
7.ԼӦ׼׼ӦڰֻԼǩֺЧ
ά干͹ȫȨάĪз
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18յ»ַԼܸ鶨飨ȫģ
ǩյ»ַԼʱ˫ȫȨھܵ¾ȷڶŷΧۣ½ۣ
1.ڲ޵ĺ(ɳǡάǡ)ĵ緢α䶯ʱı罫Ϊ¹ΧĽޡⷽ棬˫άŵ档
2.ڲҵĵ緢α䶯ʱ¹Χ۷ӡά˹ӺɣһΪ硣
άһIJǷ˫ҪԼһҽλ⣬ֻڽһηչвȷ
3.ڶŷ棬ڱǵ档·϶Ըõȫûϵ
4.˫ӱ鶨Ϊļ
19 ѧݧڧڧܧѧ ڧڧ. ڧ֧ܧѧ ѧӧܧѡ. ., 1952. . 55.
20˹١𼪶ڶս¼(1)ƽڶʮһ¡սԵ
21 ëѡڶ һ¡һ¶ʮգ
22 ʮʡ˹׸Ԫ˧ǵʱ˾
23ݧ . ѧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ާ. ѧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧѧ ӧѧ ާڧӧѧ ӧۧߧ / ܧ. ֧. ѧߧԧ. .֧էӧ. ., 1972. .301.
24ñλ߽磬8˺12ݿ
25 1938ףֲռȫͬ47%ֶռ41%
26ͬʱӿҪĽݿ˶ʡݿ䡪ڿ
27 1939311ա־Ļ˹ֵͶ
28 . . . 17 1939
29 1945ɴ¹ҵԼĸ80ĩշԼҲֻиڵĻȻա
30֧ . ҧ֧֧ ݧӧޡ. . 20.
31 ͬ
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34 ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧӧӧ ֧ߧܧ ӧ֧ܧ-ԧ֧ާѧߧܧԧ էԧӧ ߧ֧ߧѧѧէ֧ߧڧ 1939 . (ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧է ߧѧէߧ է֧ѧ 24 է֧ܧѧҧ 1989 .) / ѧӧէ. 1989. 28 է֧.
35 ܧݧ ݧڧߧ ֧ԧ ݧ֧էӧڧ: ܧݧѧ ֧ӧԧ ֧ܧ֧ѧ . ֧ӧ .. XX ֧٧է ާާߧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧڧ ӧ֧ܧԧ ٧ 25 ֧ӧѧݧ 1956 . // ٧ӧ֧ڧ . 1989. 3. . 145-148.ɷ֤ʵ˵սͷ˹ԵûҡܿعɾʮͶ˹еʡܧ .. ާڧߧѧߧڧ ѧ٧ާݧ֧ߧڧ. ٧. 10-. .2. ., 1990. .10.
36ߧ֧ߧ ݧڧڧܧ . . IV. ., 1946. . 354.
37 PA AA Bonn: B ro des Staatssekret?r. Der Krieg 1939. Bd. 4 (R 29686), Bl. 303 (224106)
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43ɴ¹Ͻ6ʳ4˿37ʯ2077
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47 19394¡š424473ҳ1939429աִίԱһԡ
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80 Ernst Thalmann: An Stalin. Briefe aus dem Zuchthaus 1939 bis 1941. Berlin, 1996
81 19391010ɴ⵳֯˰Բ޵ĺۿڵ˵ָ֯ʾ Bonn: Bro des Chefs der Auslandsorganisation. Bd. 115: Ru?land (R 27224), Bl. 370083-370084.
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էݧڧߧߧڧ, ާѧڧߧڧ ܧڧߧާ ӧѧӧܧѧާ, ܧڧ ٧ ѧߧ٧ܧڧ ֧ܧ էڧ֧ܧڧӧ ҧݧڧܧӧѧ ?Communisme?, 3, 32-33-34.
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The Government of the German Reich and The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Desirous of strengthening the cause of peace between Germany and the U.S.S.R., and proceeding from the fundamental provisions of the Neutrality Agreement concluded in April, 1926 between Germany and the U.S.S.R., have reached the following Agreement:

Article I. Both High Contracting Parties obligate themselves to desist from any act of violence, any aggressive action, and any attack on each other, either individually or jointly with other Powers.

Article II. Should one of the High Contracting Parties become the object of belligerent action by a third Power, the other High Contracting Party shall in no manner lend its support to this third Power.

Article III. The Governments of the two High Contracting Parties shall in the future maintain continual contact with one another for the purpose of consultation in order to exchange information on problems affecting their common interests.

Article IV. Neither of the two High Contracting Parties shall participate in any grouping of powers whatsoever that is directly or indirectly aimed at the other party.

Article V. Should disputes or conflicts arise between the High Contracting Parties over problems of one kind or another, both parties shall settle these disputes or conflicts exclusively through friendly exchange of opinion or, if necessary, through the establishment of arbitration commissions.

Article VI. The present Treaty is concluded for a period of ten years, with the proviso that, in so far as one of the High Contracting Parties does not advance it one year prior to the expiration of this period, the validity of this Treaty shall automatically be extended for another five years.

Article VII. The present Treaty shall be ratified within the shortest possible time. The ratifications shall be exchanged in Berlin. The Agreement shall enter into force as soon as it is signed.

[The section below was not published at the time the above was announced.]

Secret Additional Protocol.

On the occasion of the signature of the Non-Aggression Pact between the German Reich and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics the undersigned plenipotentiaries of each of the two parties discussed in strictly confidential conversations the question of the boundary of their respective spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. These conversations led to the following conclusions:

Article I. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement in the areas belonging to the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), the northern boundary of Lithuania shall represent the boundary of the spheres of influence of Germany and U.S.S.R. In this connection the interest of Lithuania in the Vilna area is recognized by each party.

Article II. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement of the areas belonging to the Polish State, the spheres of influence of Germany and the U.S.S.R. shall be bounded approximately by the line of the rivers Narev, Vistula and San.

The question of whether the interests of both parties make desirable the maintenance of an independent Polish State and how such a state should be bounded can only be definitely determined in the course of further political developments.

In any event both Governments will resolve this question by means of a friendly agreement.

Article III. With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinterest in these areas.

Article IV. This Protocol shall be treated by both parties as strictly secret.

Moscow, August 23, 1939.

For the Government of the German Reich

v. Ribbentrop

Plenipotentiary of the Government of the U.S.S.R.

V. Molotov

1.Լ˫֤ұ˴˻ʹַ򹥻Ϊ
2.ԼһսһԼøκ֧֡
3.Լ˫μκֱӡӷһԼκιҼš
4.˫ԺƽʽԼһˡ
5.ԼЧΪ10ꡣ
ַԼ⣬յ˫ǩһܸЭ飬й涨
1.ڲ޵ĺңɳǡάǡ𣩵ĵ緢α䶯ʱı罫Ϊ¹ΧĽޡⷽ棬˫άŵ档
2.粨α䶯յ˫׷ӡά˹ӺɣΪֽ硣άֲǷ˫棬Լλ磬ֻڽһηչвȷ
3.ڶŷ棬ǵıǵ棬¹ڸõȫûϵ
4.˫ӱЭΪļ 


 


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