皇冠2020欧洲杯

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[ԭ][18ʹͽƷ]췢չʷ russianspaceweb.com

˵http://www.russianspaceweb.com/ һ췢չʷվҽ½䷭
ܴҲ϶кܶ಻ĵطרҵʿݺשӢԭ֣֮רʶֲʶ
ѷĵĶҿȷģҵԭĽܣԲӢġûľûҵġ
Щϣרҵʿָ㣬ý䷭ȷ䡣ת˵18ʹͽ


ʥ˵ñı˵ñҪΪڻоĻ
16Kh
212ѲĪ˹ƵRNIIоơ1939
ˮDZͧѲ
װԵͷP-5DZѲõڴĿ
GIRDʦƵĻȫߴ縴ƷAviavnito 07GIRD-09GIRD-X
ꡱ޼Ѳ
DZͧPѲ
÷ġ塱ڽܲԣѲ


һƪ
ԭ
http://www.russianspaceweb.com/gdl.html
֮ǰġ20ǰĻ͡¶Ʒ˹ƪΪ֮ǰȷһţȷʱڵģ

GDL뵽ʵ

1917 ꣬ʲά˸Ϊ˹Ҷ̵ı仯ն쵼ΪѶũҵᾡ빤ҵᣬȡߡͬʱնڸװʽ˺ܴŬһսԣ192131ճ޷쵼GDLһоʵҡGDLоԱҹһ治Ŭƾõһ濪͹ȼϡ⽫ʹǵʽƥС

1917죬ʲά˵ȡζʤڶаʷľƱˡǣǶ԰׾IJпսԼġԹڹʵڶˣɹ꣬쵼Ϊִĺ

-GDL֯ʷظ-

1919 53գսڣ޷(1859-1930)һλѧʦºίԱ칫θ׶-³Үά槣ݧѧէڧާڧ ߧ-֧ӧڧ Уϣ֧չƽʽоΪڹҵǿ󡱡лչʦƷ˹д͵ģĽĻĿԼķõ1915ר֤飨ר309

1894꣬޷ѾʼоҺȼϻ1915꣬ġкˮըר19121917䣬оĽ飬ֱΪʮ¸Եʶжϡ

оµάȨΪ޷Ľˡ192131գάĪ˹Ƴо޷򹤳ʦķʵҡݱS. Kamenev򣿣, the Chief Commander of the Armed Forcesװ˾Թ˳ʵһ¡׶ܷһλлоڱʦξ¼ල¼Եְ񡣼޷ʵλĪ˹Ƽ˹Tikhvinskayaֵһ¥̻װúͻѧʵңԼһӵ17̨ij䡣

1925꣬޷ʵҰǨա1928꣬ʵұͼз˹Ϊ嶯ʵңGDL

ʱGDLܸίԱᡪǰľ¿ѧоЭϽ

1928꣬δо쵼֮һ¶ˣ1898-1938GDL

19317£ͼз˹GDLĹϽȨӾ¿ѧоЭתƵװľ·ίᣨUVI[the Directorate of Military Inventions (UVI) within the Technical headquarters of the Chief of Armaments of the Red Army.]

ͼз˹GDLо˵Ŀ£ٶʹʵҳԱΪպ˹֪ʶӵ෴ĵһĿ֮һͼз˹˶Գǰо൱Ȥ19321933䣬ηʸʵҡ1933죬ۿGDLƵĹȼϵIJԡ

Դ1921GDLijԱ192110192323ˣ193177ˣ1932120ˣ1933꣬ʵѾӵ200˵Ĺģ

1931꣬GDL߸ţλĵĺ¥ԼߺһСϵı˵ñҪ

1933101գܲĪ˹ƵƽоRNIIGDLΪRNIIշLO19341ʼGDLоԱǨĪ˹ơĪ˹ƣ³ʲСзORMϵеҺȼϷ

 

-GDLըҩо-

GDLоԱʼһµըҩϣװըҩĵδͬڵ޷ѵڵһֻͲʽ

GDLͬӦûѧоͬըҩơ1924꣬ѳɹսըҩ1927-1928䣬ճԱıը俪ʼըҩҲλﵺۿڵĺըҩ뱬ըʵ

1928 33գGDLĹʦԼ20ģпִԵĶȷ˹Rzhevskiyڱ鳡ط*һö̻ҩƽڵڵ̴ԼΪ1300סrenȨڶȷ˹鳡صδҵ˹ֵܾڸõش´ģ෴֤ݡ

1930GDLʼֱ65mm-410mm֮ĹȼϵһԤ̴8500ǧˡ

1932꣬RS-82ֱ82mmI-4սط䡣

1933꣬GDLѶʹùƽľͺŵĵؿյͺйʽԡ

--

1927꣬GDLּ̾÷ɻɾϵͳһ8صTB-1ըڻ˳ɣ־ĿijɹڻӦãɾԭ֮ġ

-Һȼϻ-

1929꣬޷ͬʱ21մѧҵʦ³ʲƻ档Ӹ515𣬸³ʲƳΪGDLһʽԱ

GDL󣬸³ʲƸʵҵڶţһµо򡪡Һȼϻ

ORM-11930꣬³ʲƵŶӿORM-1ˮʽORM-120ǧ˵תӡƽ³ʲƳԹ뱽ĻױĻȻҺ̬ͱ

ORM1931 䣬³ʲŶӽ46[*]ORMԵ𣬷ѡORMǡʵĶдȼϵѡϣ³ʲƿǹĻԼױ÷Ϊ60ţȼݻΪ140סԵijڱ˵ñҪеGDLо

[*]˵47Ρ˵1931-1932䣬ORMͺŲһΡ

1931꣬оܹORM-1ORMԵ50Ρ鱩¶һϵ⡣ΪƳһʵӦõķ³ʲŶӻʱ䣬ͺţһֱORM-47

1932䣬³ʲŶ½ORM-4ORM-22װŲͬɷֵƽ

ORM-23ORM-521933Եġһĩ³ʲȷţú͵ĻҺȼϻõƽ̫ռƻԵӰ졣

ORM-481933꣬³ʲȼú͵ĻORM-48˫в㣬ȴˮͨвڲĹܵѭ¡

ORM-501933꣬GDL150ǧ˵ORM-50ORM-52ʽԡORM-50ӦGIRD׹ַƵġ05ϡ

RLA³ʲƵ׷󲻽ƽϵͳΪ˲ƵĻ³ʲƺͬǼƻԼġRLAs

RLA-1RLA-2RLA-3ǸϵеСͻ趨ո߶2-4ҡöRLA-100ɵģ400ǧصĻܷɵ100ĸ߿ա

³ʲϣORM-5280صRLA-1ͻORM-52ӦһֺϣԼI-4սĻɡһ̨˵סÿȼվŷӵ29βԡ

RLA-1RLA-2Ͷ19331231գ³ʲŶӳԷRLA-1ڼ⣬δ뿪̨Ǽƻ19341½һη䣬GDLǨĪ˹ƣƻȻжˡ

 

-¼-

1931GDLIJã˸񣬵ʾˣۺŶӦ

űš쵼ˡλáо

1G.E.ˡ¥ڵRS

2V.P.³ʲơ˵ñҪҺȼϻ

3V.I.ŴƷ򡪡عƽ

4I.I.𡪡ΪRSȼ

5N.A.޷з򡪡ƽʽ

6E.S.˵޷򡪡

7

1930꼾޷󣬱˹˵˹쵼GDLֱ19331993꣬GDLз˾Ÿͺŵĵػջͺװ

 

GDL쵼

޷ 1921-1930

˹˵˹ 1930-1931

Ӣ 1931-1932

Kleimenov 1932-1933

ֳһöR-06A.I.Polyarny
ŵ˹η
们ϵѲɵ1936
µĻ1931
µĻ1940
GIRD-09
GIRD-09

ڶƪ

ԭģhttp://www.russianspaceweb.com/rockets.html

ûרŵҳ棬ȫΪҳĶ

GIRDȤרҵ

ʮʮʼ׼о顣ʹǿԾ۵һЩGIRDƽоС顪֯Ī˹ơգڰͿ⡢ڱ˹˹ˡж˹ˡ˹˵ȳҲǵӰĪ˹ƣлǡη͸ϣӵ¶ŬջѧٽᣨOsaviakhimͬGIRD

1931915գһּооˣƽоСGIRDģGruppa Izucheniya Reaktivhogo DvizheniyaڵʱһЩҵĻ͵оߣGIRDijһ͵ġרҵмƻо
ĸҪԱ

ӵ¶[Tsander]

ַ[Tikhonravov]

η[Korolev]

ŵ˹ɷ[Pobedonostsev]

GIRD·ĸС飬оʮĿδ̫ռƻлǡηGIRD쵼ҲһС쵼ͼίԱϯʱӡ̵ĵĿ˵IJܣ¶

 

һС
ϣͼά桤ӵ¶[Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander]쵼顣ŶɺշоԺIAM[The Institute of Aircraft Engine Construction]תGIRDġ1907꣬ӵ¶ͿʼǻƶǼʷС1924ǼʽͨЭ[the Society for the Study of Interplanetary Communication]Ĵʼ֮һҲGIRDҪߡ

Project10
1929꣬ӵ¶IAMʱͿʼOR-1ʵ鷢ˡOR-1GIRDProject 01죬Project 01ΪǸȼϡǴҺȼϡΪѹתӵ¶һЩȼϣĩ͵ĻȼҲȴβ롣쿿ϵĹѭȴˮһ¡
Project 02OR-2ΪηRP-1ơȼͣ50ǧ͸µʯīڿ죬OR-1ͬΪȼṩȴòȱٵľƾߵ80ǧˡڱڽºѹתŽȼҵײȼϽ뵽ȼʱһֻԱЧػϺȼա
Project 10ΪGIRD-Xƣĵһʵ19333½С÷ȼҺͣ70ǧҲǵһȴķ֮һҺΪȴ뿿ײĹӣڽȼ֮ǰȻȼҵڱΪ¡ʵб¶ȼϵʹоԱ78%ľƾһԵܵȼϡ

GIRD-X1933
1933328գӵ¶ӵ¶µһλʦа¡˹ŵά桤ƶ[Leonid Konstinovich Korneev]ΪС쵼ƬУGIRD-XҲһ˼
19331125գProject 10䡣ڷǰ80סֻDzֳɹһöҺȼϻע⣬Xֵġ10Ƕĸġ
һСʦʦɣ
F.A.ӵ¶A.I.ŵ[Gryaznov]N.M.άά[Vever]A.I.Podipaev
L.K.ƶL.S.ʲ[Dushkin]L.N.ƶ˹[Kolbasina]S.S.˹׶ŵ[Smirnov]
A.I.[Polyarny]A.V.Ʒ[Salikov]E.K.Īʲ[Moshkin]A.V.޷[Lavrov]

 

ڶС
׹Klavdievichַ쵼顣DzĸĿĹڽʦַ򽫳Ϊϵ[Sputnik]Ǻ͵һ̽Ƽල
Project 03һRDA-1ģȼҺ͵ıʽķչĿδɡ

Aviavnito
ORM-50״β193311½УȽɣ[Eugene S?nger]ڰµȴʽIJԡͨΪǸַķˡɣĵһ̨ȴʽSR-519345״βԡڵĵ¹ûȼϻҺڣǵһϵбը¼סȻ¶[Reidel]1933ȴʽȼĻʽȴӵ¶ķProject 010210ȴʽʵǵʷ׷1929-1933ô硣
Project 05ֻסȼ䣬ҶΡδɣǼԺƳΪAviavnitoĻAviavnitoɶʲ12-KȼҺ96%ľƾ1936꣬Aviavnito״η䣬ڶ꣬3000׵ĸ߶ȡ

Project 07ǼַСĵһöҺ/úƽϵͳиڲͬơȼ䱻ھ޴ڡɲӵ¶Project 02OR-2193411ɣȼѡþƾ

GPS-3
Project 06/Object 212ǿηһѲɵɸ³ʲƵORM-65ȼúͣΪ150ǧˣƤ޷ĽGPS-3ԶʻǿơProject 06/о1936꿪ʼֱη͸³ʲƱ1939ԷɡڻطıͺObject 301ԼߵƵƵϵͳҲͬʱоС
1932꣬ڻӦƵϵͳƤ޷1934-1936GPS-2ĹҲǾпԵģ1942V-1ʹõϵͳ¹ֱ1937ƵˮʹƵϵͳкܳʷߵ˼·ɴ˽
Сʦʦеʦɣ
S.P.ηE.S. Shchetinkov V.V.ŵ[Gorbunov]A.M.Ŷŵ[Durnov]
N.A.ŵ[Zheleznov]S.A.Ƥ޷V.V.ŵ[Ivanov]
A.V. Chesalov G.N.Ѷз[Fedotov]B.A. Bivovarov

 


ĸзС飬򡤰Үά桤ޱ[Ivan Andreevich Vorobev]𹤳ͷ̨IJŰʮеʦʮһͭһһľһЩˡ
V.P. AvdoninA.A. ¡[Vorontsov]MiloradovK.K. Ѷ޷[Fedorov]
P.S. ɽ޷[Aleksandrov]A.I. ӷ[Gavrilin]I.M. ĪлҮ[Moiseev] B.V. [Frolov]
A.I. ˹[Astakhov]E.N. [Gracheva]A.V. [Murashev]G.V. [Frolov]
V.M. Bezlyudov A.M.Ŷŵ[Durnov]A.P. NefedovA.N. Funtikova
E.I. [Berg]A.V. ZuikovP.K. NuzhdinP.N. ŵ[Kharitonov]
M.V. ʲƷ[Bochkov]L.A. Ʒ[Ikonnikov]A.G. ¿[Okunev]B.Y. Shedko
F.A. [Busurin]M.P. Ƥŵ[Kapitonov]N.V. ˵޷[Petrov]V.I. Chirkin
I.V. ά[Vlasov]P.I. KostyashkinA.S. RaetskyG.P. Bekenev
I.A. ޱ[Vorobev]A.V. Kozpov³ɷ[Rumyantsev]
M.G. ޱ[Vorobev]E.M. MatysikK.V. Semchileeva

 

GIRDʲô⣿
19201930ҺȼϻѵijԵУȽҪǷֱ޲ءµĿ¹̫ЭᣨVerein fr RaumschiffahrtGIRD
Ϊʲôǵ¹һȫͶʵսҺȼϵͶʮڵŬɹȵ¹൱ƣΪʲôǺûܲôҪӰأ

1926꣬޲ء·*һöҺȼϻȻijɹڼȽ1932꣬ЯƵϵͳͻ1940꣬ʹñʽģȫִʽĻڽ졣ҵǣµĶСҼû֧֡һűصĹ۵㣬ΪֻйȼϻӦDZܡ˸µ׿ԽʷӰ졣

¹A-31937
¹ĻоȲͶôȽ֯áVfRĻԭʼ˳Ծü̶סļ򵥵ҺȼϷͷVfRرû֧֡ڱ[Nebel]һ̨ȼϷαһҺȼϻʾ
ֱӹܣṩԴרҵĹʦԺ󣬵¹ȽĻоſʼ1937ԵA-3ǵ¹һö˻˼ϳǰĴԾͣǵĵһƵϵͳѹûȴ1936һҪijܿܶA-3Լ¹ͻȻԾҪӰ졣ͳߴ͸ӳ̶ȶԣ13ֵA-4V-2һϵķԾA-41942״䣬װһ̨ȴıӵпǰ25֣

19311934꣬GIRDȡĿĽչǣԴӺGDLϲRNII֮оҺȼϻĹòǡGDL쵼˿÷ŵ[Ivan Terentevich Kleimenov]쵼ϲоʵңGIRDĿηθΡǣ÷ŵGDLԱҺȼϻûȤGIRDĿܿ⵽ԵηСѲʽɵо÷ŵһGDLרҶεְ
ҺȼϻоһԴԸ³ʲơ˵÷ŵȡһʹҺĿֻڻѧЧܽᡪĿ
1935꣬ںͿ÷ŵ˺ܴ󣬿ƶСһЩԱ뿪ˣdzһµƾ֣KB-7ƳR-03R-061937ԡR-03ո߶Ԥƴ3.7ǧףR-06ܳ4ǧסȻ³ʲưǵĹһʧܣKB-7ĻܱܿŻո߶ȵ¼ֱ1942V-2ĵһηвŽơ
1937꣬˹ֿʼ෴RNIIڲIJӦڲͬɱƵ໥淢÷ŵĸֱη͸³ʲƱżʷʾRNIIڵ෴һҰĵġijԱAndrey Kostikovġֻܲ룬1934GIRDõ֧֣ηܴﵽijɾ͡


http://www.russianspaceweb.com/rnii.html

RNII̽

 

1933죬GDLGIRDϲƽоRNII򡤿÷ŵΪоΡָĿԱ£ɽСоϲɵRNIIRNII̳GDLĹƽʽоGIRDҺȼϻijɹԼһϵ

 

1933921գĪ˹ƣͼз˹ǩίԱ113ƽоRNIIʽRNIIգʥ˵ñ嶯ʵңGDLĪ˹ƵƽоС飨MosGIRDϲɡ1933101գGDLʽΪRNIIշLO

 

19331031գͶίԱ䲼104RNIIعҵίԱ[the People'sCommissariat of Heavy Industry]ĹϽ֮¡1934һ³GDLȫԱǨĪ˹ơ

 

GDLǰ򡤿÷ŵΪRNIIΡлǡηںܶһʱڵRNIIĸΣǣο÷ŵԼܹʦ֮ĸ˳ͻη򱻵쵼RNIIڲһš󣬵¼չʾ˿η1934117д÷ŵһݱ棬оģȻ޸ݣηҪ󿪳ȫԱǿ÷ŵĻӦǡҪչίԱῪη

 

粨19341£ȡ˿ηεְλա֮󣬵ϯ෴˳ϮʱԴҪԿηȴͬĵˣǰ̡

 

쵼RNIIĹʦĻпѧίԱ[Scientific TechnicalCouncil]NTSоĻNTSϯˣԱи³ʲơŴƷ򡢿η򡢲ŵ˹ɷ򡢼ַ1935623գ˹̹¶Ʒ˹ѡΪίԱԱ

 

1936꣬RNIIΪNII-3ͬ꣬ʹҺȼƽĵѲɵĹϲη쵼һindependence ¡

 

1937꣬˹ֺͬŷ෴ﵽ߳Ȼȫû˭ѹиеȫȻϲʲά˾Ӣκȷܵϵ֪ʶ˹ϴ˶׵Ŀ֮һ֣ʹRNII쵼˳Ϊ˹ֵ׷ߵƷ

 

1937613գһ𾪵Ŵʲά˵׿Խ׹ͼз˹ԡ񹫵Сʹˡͼз˹NII-3ˡ󣬴糱оڲоκĸֱϯʦ׶³ʲƺлǡηдͽ̡

 

ʷѧΪNII-3ڲĴ¼ǰС˹·[AndreiKostikov]ΪԼҵġ˹·оĹȨ£NII-3˷Ƶ̳̻ڶսԿɯо˺꣬ٷʷѧҰѿ˹·дִ֮ҵսʿǷdzǣֱ1980ĩǷ˹ʱʷδ޸ĵ۲ųΪܡ

 

194110£Ե¹Ī˹ƵƣRNII

 

1942715գίԱᣨGKO䲼2046NII-3Ϊо[the State
Institute of Reactive Technology]GIRTоĹϽȨӱ[Narkomat of
Munitions](NKB)תίԱ[the Soviet of People's
Commissars]SNKSNKϽ£оίһ˶ⶵ񡪡оΪ302Ļػ

 

19442£ίԱᣨGKOٶооΪѧоԺյһ[the Scientific and
Research Institute of Jet Aviation Number 1]ֳNII-1񺽿չҵ[the
People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry]NKAPϽ׳һ䶯1944괺졣

19447£һݹڵ¹A-4鱨ʹĪ˹ơʱ𣬶Ե¹ĵΪоҪ

RNIIɽСо֯ϲɣʹòͬļƻͲͬԱҪͬһ¹¡RNIIGDLĹȼϻоͬʱ˻GIRDҺȼϻijɹ

-ȼϻ-

 

ƽʽоԴGDLRNIIȻҪ19331940䣬оƳڵضԿաضˮ桢ضԵعĻGDLRS-82RS-132װ˾÷ɻϡʹõĹȼϵĻѧɷõĽ

 

I-15I-16I-153սԼR-5IL-2֧ԮΪЯRS-82صRS-132ɺըЯ

 

1939ģԶսϣսRS-82ݳ״νսгɹܵл

1938֮RNIIΪ沿˿ɷRS-132ƶʽ·䷢ϵͳ

M-13BM-1319391940ɣ1941װӣμ˵ڶսΪ֪ǿɯڣ1941714״Ͷʵսڰ¶ɯ򡪡Ī˹Ƶĵ¾ļءһ·ڵսࡣ

Ļ¼ʾڶսڼʹ˹ƶһǧöRSͻ

 

ڻ׼ȷԽϵͣ»ϣDZװΪѧװҩΪˣRNII1936ΪNII-3ֱ132׵RKhS-132ԼZiSصķϵͳÿ׷ϵͳ24们졣

 

-Ѳʽɵ-

 

ȥRNIIεְ֮󣬿ηת쵼ɵƲš

Vehicle 06/1RNIIãηŶӾƳԴGIRDE.S.ShetinkovĹġVehicle
06װ09ԺַɺʽΪ06/1ûзпϵͳΪ06/1ʦǴ˶ʮ׳ľµ1934һԵ𣬱¶һЩ⡣193455գԷ䡣Vehicle 06100׵ľ롣

 

Ϊһηʱƻе̬ƣ06/1䱸˼򵥵ķпϵͳǣ1934523յһԷʧܸգ˵ؽ迪µķпϵͳ19349£η06/1۵ʵ龭飬ѲʽɵƣȡΪ06/206/306/4

Vehicle 21681ǧأ䱸ĽķпϵͳɺʽObject21606/3ijʼΪ06/1ķпϵͳ֮⣬216ĸ{ߣԭΪeilerons޴˴ʣΪ
aileron-ı}ҲпƹܡпϵͳԤ趨ָпƻˮƽ[steered the horizontal
stabilizer of the rocket in accordance with a preprogrammed sequence]

216ĵһԷ䶨193659ա뿪̨󣬻600׵ĿУڴԼ1.5ǧ׿ⱬըƫԤй1.4ǧԶЩ˾ɥΪõʶ˽Ļԣʦģ˹㷺ʵ顣һԷʱ193610µףܷпϵͳͷ䵯ƾʧܡ1937ĿȻ⵽˷һĹƻлǰһо⣺ûԶȶ

Vehicle 212ɺʽһ־ǻڿη06/ƳVehicle 212212ʽ䱸ȶϵͳһֻɡûij1936726ͨ193682ơ

19361117գö212ȫߴģͱϵܲԡβУĻڻɵɲǻл1937ȫ꣬Vehicle
212صʵнܸĽ1938529գһԱըգηڱըˡη͸³ʲ˹ֵϴ˶֮2121939աöɹɣڷ;вɱƫԤĿ

 

Vehicle 3011937꣬ηŶӳ԰Vehicle212װɻطĻڴк͵ġҪĿꡣļƻҪ󿪷ػңصߵƵϵͳ1936ߵϵͳ216Ͻ˲ԡʵУеĻһͷߵָǣʵûȡκθչ

 

RNIIѲʽɵļ

216 212 217

/ǧ 81 165 120

/ 2.3 2.59 2.27

չ/ 3 3.05 2.195

/ƽ 1.5 1.7 0.82

/ǧ 100 150 1850

/ 15100 - 6800

{ߣע216ḷ́ǰд1.5ǧף˴15ǧףǴ˴˸0}

 

RP-3181936η˼һȼʱ400ĻƶĻƽϵͳѡϣڵļƻȿǹҺȼϻҲǹȼϵġƻУַĸ߶ÿ300׵ٶȷУ߶Ϊ25ɴѹ˲ݡ

 

ǣɣִ8-10ǧ׵ĸ߶ȡߣɡ

 

ΪĿʵʩĵһηSK-9ϰװ³ʲƵORM-65һǰηSK-9ĿSK-9ORM-65ϳɵ»RP-318-1RP-218-1

 

1936616գ218ijƽRNIIίԱ顣ƻΪ½ƽṹһֱһĽƷ˹վѧԺĿۡ

 

19371216գRNIIеһλƽϵͳԳ19371225193825յʱڣ˶ʮ顣1938526գη׼չزԣȻһºͱˡ

 

1938714գRNIIĹRP-318-1Ŀ12ǰĿͣ١෴粨꼰RNII󣬿ηľֵŶӽӹRP-318-1Ŀ³ʲƵORM-65L.S.ʲRDA-1-15019392ǿʼ黻µķĻͬһ10£100ԷĴǣС

1940228գV.P.Ѷ޷[Fedorov]ʻRP-318-1״жСΪһϵʵĽίԱĹίԱ1940612ǩ׼оɻ

ڵ¹ʼһµ194181գǩ348ά˶ࡤάŵ[Viktor
Bolkhovitinov]쵼ĵ293ƾ֣ڿ˻ػƾֵɽ󡤱ǿ[Aleksander
Bereznyak]ͰплҮ[Alexei Isaev]zhuchiĿ

ͬ꣬άŵNII-3ΪսƻƾɢBilimbai󣬲άŵŶӲòӹܷɻƹBI-1ʵսɲάŵŶƣװҺȼϻ19425׷ɡ

 

-³ʲƵĹ-

 

GDLʼ1938걻˹ֵ´Ϊֹ³ʲƼලORMϵ70ַƣORMORM-70ORM-101ORM-102ʱڣ20ǧͺŵ320ǧҡ

 

ORM-50GIRDļַƵ05ϡ

 

1936ʱ³ʲŶѾORM-65ORM-65ڿηŶƵRP-318-1212Ѳʽɵϡ÷Զɱ䣬50ε

 

-ַĹ-

 

³ʲ1934ǨĪ˹ʱѽ/úͶΪġƽѡ񡱡ˣGIRD׹ַзȼҺ/ú͵Ļַ1932RNIIǰGIRD

1935ģַƵġ02073000׸߿ա

 

1936424գ300ǧ˷3׳AviavnitoԷɡ815գи߶ȴﵽ2400ס

 

1937813գһöַƵ97ǧصAviavnitoԭ053000׸߿գһ̨ȼվƾҺķ

ʯʾǰ˸ӵĹȼƻ
1960ƵP-35Ѳںġݡϵͳ
ػӺ16KhƬ
ŻʵƵͼʾơĵ¹V-1֮ػ
սĩڣʦ¹V-1
Project 05ͼ
212Ѳɵ1939
Ѳһĸ˳


޼ʵΪսʹϵ顱֮ǰĻʦdzԹѲһֵͷɻĹɴʵѲʱ³ǣȤתICBM̳̺гѲΪһ

20ͿʼֻΪҪʽŵڵһڴϷڴڵѲ
1950ľʱڣʽĻ˭ʵ޼ʷжգսʱڵռսѲݱΪ½ϺͺĿս
60ӦѲԿΪвӦ⣬ѲҲ̼һЩĽ̫ռƻӦԶѲ׼սΪɣ̫еƵϵͳٽ˾̫վķչ

194410£һö˹Ӣ͵Ĺ׶صĵ¹V-1Ѳк˵Ī˹ơһ614գչҵɳ[Shakhurin]ڱ˧{ߣӦΪվ}ŵάƷ[Novikov]Ĺʦ׶÷ķֹ˹ָ𺽿չҵĸֿƷ
ֿƷѯѲչindependence о÷V-1Ŀԡ÷һƪ˵ݽּľ޴DZ
˹򡤸ŵ[Yaroslav Golovanov]÷ĻƣֿƷĻõTsIAM100˹ģĶ飬Ϊ6š
1944917գ˵919գ÷Ϊ51չϯʦǰùɻʦ[Nikolai Polikarpov]ʩһ֡
1944ĩ÷ѾƳ¹1945ϰ꣬ƳһƵѲ10Kh10KhûPe-8ըԹηһ÷Ҳǰ¹Ѱؼ
˺÷վѲ°汾14Kh16KhPe-8Tu-4Զ̺ըڿз䡣ͬѲĵͺϷ汾10KhN10KhMҲڿС
мƻٷпϵͳľ޴⣬Ҫ1953꣬Ļ̬̳
ʱ׸սϯʦķ׸һྺѲƻ˹ֵ񲿳Ķлǡ׸¹19532£˹ȥǰܣǩõ51ƾֲ׸OKB-155ΪOKB-155ķ֧
÷ʧȥϯʦְλĪ˹ƸߵȼѧУMVTUĽͷ뿪ˡ

-µĿʼ-
195331˹ֿ֮ƷִֿƷǵλʦؽĶ顣
195469գչҵMAPǩر飨SKG-10SKG-10ǰλĪ˹Ƹͼʲŵ[Tushino]ĵ500SKG-1080˹ģĶɵ51ǰԱһȺĹʦɡ
÷ʼںرDZͧƻеĵΪP-5P-5۵жӷзȥڿԶչ
1955ģ÷ӵѧԺԺķ˹˹򡤿˶ʲ[Mastislav Keldush]ĵ绰˶ʲ÷½صλʵDZѲĽ顣
1955719պ88գSKG-10Ϊ52ʵƾ֣OKB-52

--
µ֯Ī˹Զз[Reutov]ֻռ˱ؾƳзеһש÷ҪĵװDZͧϱ뾭ҵľһڸоĺʦ׸ͱҮ򣬶ԶѲƷ÷P-5ֱӾDZҮλ޸[Taganrog]ƾֿP-10Ѳ
⣬1958-1971䣬A.Ya.ǿ쵼ƾֳɹɶ̵̳½ͺKSR-11 KSR-5зKRMKh-22Kh-55е淢P-15
ǵʮڣ÷ԶѲӮһϯ֮أҮP-10Ŀȡ÷OKB-52λĿʼں³ʱڴﵽ㡣

-P-5-
P-51959Ƴ4300ǧˣ500ǧףʱ1250ңЯ1000ĵͷ
20°Ҷ÷оģе~NPO MashinostroeniaźԶѲоP-5DP-6P-7C-6P-35Ametist Malakhit Bazalt Granit Progress [Vulkan]MeteoritYakhont
P-5P-5DװıC-5ṩ沿ӡP-61962װDZͧӡ
1959꣬OKB-52һֿDZͧˮ·Ѳˮûɹƽ80ǧס1967꣬õ״DZͧϲձΪ1968ͶģӦá
1972Ƴ˸ȽġǰһʹùƽӣȿɲDZͧϣҲɲˮ潢ͧϡҡҲˮˮ·䡣
P-35ѲרΪϵƣݡ[Redut]
2500ǧ˵ġʯװѹڵͿз䡣ڵ淢İ汾װȼչȼϵķƻƻIJͬʯ120300ǧ׼䣬ٶÿ750סܹЯ200ǧըҩ
NPO Mashƿ20ϵͳռ1990˹60%
һЩNPO Mash͵21ͳڵӡȡ

-̬-
20017£ݡʢʱ˹7Ѯijʱ䲻ͳѹ״ﲶ׽пӰ뵺һг[Kura]гʢʱƸѲSS-25޼ʵϷ䣬ڵﵯԶصƻ룬㣬ĿꡣֽƵڡ˹в䣬лĿ˷䳡
ڶ˹ʢʱıȻط롣˵ʵ˹ǷйκICBM[any new ICBM tests]ʱ˹սԻĴʾûICBMܲ[no new ICBMs had been tested]
20021012գԶ˹װ˵20021012ǸæµǾ˽ģĵϰݶý屨ο˺Ͱ֧еDZֱͧ˹Ŀŵ˹ǺͿӰ뵺Ŀ귢*Զ̵
ͬһ죬սԺըȦͷӺӵĿ귢*ѲICBMлĿ˵Ӱ뵺ѵΪϰһʡ
2004217գTu-95MSսԺըɹѲȫػء
2004629գ˹սԻRVSNڰݿŬ鷢һöR-36Mη֤ʵϵͳ20ʹޡ
ͬʱڰ֧˹ӵҶձDZͧD667ˮ·һöD-9RMͷɹпӰ뵺Ŀг
ͬһ죬Tu-95MSսԺըԶѲѵ䡣зݶ˹еĻɺ󣬷ɻͷŵǰԼ3000˵ڱµصϵĿꡣ
20041224գ˹лǡŵлĿ˹ۿ-Mƶ޼ʵķ䡣˵˹վ2005佫µĿЯ˵ͷԶѲ
20081012գ˹սԺըöѲTu-160Tu-95MSμӴšStabilnostȶ2008սԺָϰϰDZͧ½

 

?
http://www.russianspaceweb.com/centers_industry.html

δͺ칤ҵ

Ҳͬ˹ûкպ칤ҵ[aerospace industry]ǻͺ칤ҵ[rocket and space industry]չҵ쵼ڶսڶԻĻɵһֵİš1946꣬չܼƻǰҪ漰µġļйʵҺͲԳҪͷ𡣲Զʮʱ䣬ѧȡ˴ӵһθƵ¹A-4ӵнĻľ޴ɾ͡



60ڸͨûе첿칤ҵ1990һɫɶ˹֣RSA1999һθУ˹ָӹ315չҵ֯ˣպͺ칤ҵ״ͬһϽ

ͺҪ

ƾ[KB Arsenal]ʥ˵ñRORSAT{״ﺣ}ICBMƺ


Դ켯[RKK Energia]ηԴ켯ţηR-7ںšƽšdzŷ[Zvezda
SM]˺šŷɴ


³зҺ[GKNPTs Khrunichev]Ī˹ƣӺţХ[Rockot]TKS{䲹ɴ}UR-200UR-100
ICBM
ѧо[TsNII Kometa]Ī˹ƣASAT{}ԤϵͳRORSATƣ


[NPO Lavochkin]Ī˹ƣԤǣ漶̽ǣ


е[NPO Mashinostroeniya]Ī˹ݵзICBMѲƣIS-ASATTKSɴʯſռվ


Үƾ[KB Makeev]ű˹ݵװ˹DZ䵼ƣ


[NPO Molniya]Ī˹ƣظʹõĺѩ


Ī˹ȹоMIT[Moscow Institute Teplotekhniki]Ī˹ƣƶƽICBMMʼ[Start-1]


NIIEMĪ˹ݵ˹ǡǵƣ



Ӧûеоƾ[NPO PM]ŵ˹[Zheleznogorsk]ֳƿ˹ŵǶ˹26ͨź͵ǵƣ


[PO Polyot]ľ˹ˣŻ쫷[Uragan]ǡGlobusɴ2007ϲ³з˾Ϊù˾һšӻԪƼURM1Briz-KM漶Լ-12

رƾ-һ뺽[TsSKB Progress]ԭűѩǵƣ


˹о[NPP VNIIEM]Ī˹ƣңǵƣ

Ϸƾ[KB Yuzhnoe]˵޷˹ˣڿ춥š[Tsyklon]ŻR-16UR-MR-100R-36R-36M
ICBM


ƽ


ŵ򷢶ҵ[Baranov Motorbuilding
Enterprise]ľ˹ˣ


е[NPO Energomash]Ī˹ƣƣ


˶ʵƾ[OKB Fakel]գ綯ƽƣ


𻨿[NPO Iskra]˶ķƽƣ


Զƾ[KBKhAKB Khimavtomatiki]գƣ


еƾ[KB Khimmash]η򣨻ƣ


ʲо[GP Keldysh Research Center]Ī˹ƣƽз


Ƽۺ[OAO SNTK Kuznetsov]ƣNK-9-15-31-33-39-43


│-ƾ[OAO Lulka-Saturn]Ī˹ƣƣD-57ڱѩɻķ


ұ[OAO Metallist]齨


OAO MotorostroitelRD-107-108-107A108ANK-33-43


еѧо[NII Khimmash]лҮԭ˹[Zagorsk]ԣ


еѧо[NII Mash]Ҷձݣԭ˹ά˹ݣ[Nizhniya
Salda]ҺȼϷƣ


Perm PO Motorostroitel˶ķ


˺տƼ[OAO ANTK Soyuz]Ī˹ƣѲͻ˶о


FTsDT Soyuzƽϵͳƣ


ͼҮ˻еƾ[OAO Turaev MKB Soyuz]Ī˹ݵؿŵ[Lytkarino]ͳѹƣ


ͼʲŵ˻еƾ[GP Tushino MKB Soyuz]Ī˹ƣںR210D/E-300Һƽƽ


ɫʮ»ҵ[Krasniy Oktaybr
Mashine-building Enterprise]ʥ˵ñ


˹ػ쳧[GPO Zlatoust
Machine-Building Plant]ZMZ˹[Zlatoust]֣


Ҫְ̺ϵͳ֧


бƾ[KPTsKB Arsenal]ڿƵ͵ϵͳ


Զ[NPO Avtomatiki]Ҷձпϵͳ


SKTB
Biophyspriborʥ˵ñ̫շеҽ豸


[NPP Geophysika]Ī˹ƣѧ͵ӲƷ


ƾ[TsKB Geophysika]˹ŵǶ˹ˣϵͳ


NII Germesű˹ݵ˹


ƽʵƾ[OKB Gorizont]Ī˹ƣԴ͵ϵͳ


NPO KhartronƷڿпϵͳ


˹ŵǶ˹˻쳧[Krasmashzavod]˹ŵǶ˹ˣDM漶ϵвƷŻķ


ӿѧо[NPP Kvant]Ī˹ƣԴӦϵͳƣ


Ī˹ƻʵƾ[Mars Moscow Experimental Design Bureau]̫յĵϵͳѩɻʿռվ


˶ķ쳧[Mashinostroitel Perm Plant]ICBM


Ӧѧо[NII PM]Ī˹ƣǵƣ


о[Institute of Precision Instrument Engineering]NIIPPĪ˹ƣںļϵͳ


NII PP i SPTĪ˹ƣ̫ʳƷ


о[Institute of Television]NIITʥ˵ñںĵӺӰϵͳ


Ƥ[NPO AP]Ī˹ƣпϵͳ豸


Ŭܶƾ[KB Nudelmana]KB TMͷǷ豸ڹռվԶڣ


NII
ParashutostroeniyaĪ˹ƣزսɡ豸


Ʒ˹ռ似רʵƾ[SOKB KT Zhukovskiy]пϵͳ


άо[Vavilov Institute]ʥ˵ñѧ⡢ϵͳ


ؽ˹˹[Votkinsk Plant]ؽ˹ˣڵ¶ع͹ICBMSLBM

dzѧо[NPP Zvezda]Ī˹ݵTomilinoΣάϵͳƣ


dzҵ[Zvezda Enterprise]άݵ[Solnechniy]GorodomlyaǣõΪ1946-1953¹ڵأ


֧豸ͷṩ


ƾ[KB Armatura]׶ݵĿƷ޷[Kovrov]ʩҺѹϵͳ


ͻƾTsKB TM]Ī˹ƣʩ

ͨûƾ[KBOM]Ī˹ƣػICBMۺϷʩĿ


еƾ[KBTM]Ī˹ƣػICBMۺϷʩĿ


ѧ乤ƾ[KB TKhM]Ī˹ƣۺϷʩƽעϵͳ


رƾ[KBSM]ʥ˵ñۺϷʩĵ֧豸ߣ


һ廯ҵ[NPF Kosmotrans]ʥ˵ñ䳡


KB MotorĪ˹ƣۺϷʩϵͳ

²򹤳[Obukhov Plant]ʥ˵ñڵݴ̫ռϵͳߺӲ


Աѵ֧


Ԯ[Federal Search and Rescue Agency]FPSU;Ԯж


Աѵ[TsPK]dz[Zvezdny

]Ī˹ݸ޶[Gorodok]Աѵ


ѧо


˹ѧԺռо[IKI RAN]Ī˹ƣռѧо


ҽѧо[IMBP]Ī˹ƣ̫շеҽѧѧо

˹ѧԺߵ繤ѧо[IRE RAN]Ī˹ƣߵѧо

˹ѧԺشѧ͵粨о[IZMIRAN]Ī˹ݵĿ[Troitsk]ʹųо


ĪоԺ[LII Gromova]Ī˹ݵƷ˹պз


Ī˹ƴѧ˹Ʊ᯺о[NIIYaF MGU]Ī˹ƣо


ǿѧо[NITs Planeta]Ī˹ƣӦÿռ⣩


˹ֹҿк-ң[Gostsentr Priroda]ңݺͼоӦã


˹ߵ絼ʱо[RIRV]ʥ˵ñʱͬо


˼͹̿ۿԺ[TsNII RTK]ʥ˵ñ˼


Ʒ˹ѧоԺ[TsAGI Zhukovskiy]Ī˹ݣպз


ео[TsNIIMash]Ī˹ݵĿη򣨻ͺĻз֤пƣ[TsUP]


˹ѧԺʻѧͷѧо[Vernadskiy GEKhI RAN]Ī˹ƣʻѧѧ

http://www.russianspaceweb.com/baikonur.html



֮˹̫շͻԳ



ݿŬķ[Tyuratam]NIIP-5Գ1957꣬װĵһʱڹ˹̹⴦ܷ䳡̫ʱ



ʷ

ķԳԴ


1950ڣؽΪܻƻѰµIJԵص㡣ʱҹеѲ͵ķо벻ǼٹǼǧеģӷӺϵĿ˹Ƕ˴ԭĵ޷һ̡ĸҵĵط֮ίԱ˾ЩطþսԱе𾪡µIJԳNIIP-5ķҰĽӺϲȻƬߵIJԭûκθŵϰҲûйǧͶֳס



ķԳ꣺



19551£һ֧貿ӵִķԵһվɼʮ˵Ĵׯºһؽ蹤˺ھ鳡IJϡʵĻ𳵷׷ʻһĵļɳȡĺʹ硢ӵʹȾ󣬼ǧ˽R-7޴ķۺ塣



ķɰݿŬ



ΪҳICBMԳ鱨ضʱȽU-2߿ػ޷ﵽU-2ķи߶ȡU-2·߷УҳµIJԳ1957죬ICBMһβԷнܺU-2ijɹķR-7̨ƬܳʱûйԳȷλá





ݿŬ췢䳡ָ



ݿŬʩ



ݿŬ췢䳡TyNIIP-5ԳϰϷֳķ豸ֱлǡη׹͸׶÷ʹáͨġ͡



ǰݿŬ



ӰݿŬǰ˹ˣʹԭķ䳡ʷ·һСġmotovozӳͷʩIJгǰݿŬ־õڹںĵи档



R-7˺ػķۺ壺



һ׷ۺ1955ķɣһλSite 1independence ̨ԼλSite 22Bװ׽19575£öR-7Site
1ա1957104գһǴͬһ̨ա1961궫-1ŷ󣬸÷ֳ̨ƼӼַ̨ۺһֱת֮400η񡣵ڶR-7ϵлķ̨1960Site
31ʼת



R-16 ICBM-1ķʩ



195911ңR-16ĵһ̨Site
41ʼʩ淢̨ΪPU-3Puskovaya UstanovkaװãPU-41959125տʼ19591217շĽڣ̨Ԥ19609¿״Է196010¾УȻһʷҵѸաSite
41õ޸1961ָR-16 ICBMSite 41̨һתڷ䶫ϵС19641968䣬ػ-1-3ȺӸ÷̨ɡ



R-9 ICBMķʩ



1960ķ˽ڿηR-9
ICBMĵ͵·̨R-9 ICBMʵ鷢̨ھӼַ̨Զĵط1963꣬R-16R-9侮֮һַһش¹ʡ



UR-200 ICBM-2ػķۺ壺



λڰݿŬԵSite 90̨ɵķۺUR-2001963-1964䣬Ŀȡ֮ǰ÷ִ̨оŴη񡣵1967꣬޺Site
90ڷ-2ĺ˶19671027գ-2״δӸ÷̨䡣ʩ21ͳʹá



R-36 ICBMķʩ



19626£R-368K67ICBMĵ淢̨ļƻõʽͨʵʽ19628Site
67ʼ1964ķNIIP-5ԳеR-36-OIJԹֵĵͷڷĿʱԵִ߶ȡĵ͵·1969֮󣬿ʼ۵Ļķڶķ侮Сһսʱ1980ۡ



ӷۺ壺



ķĸ̨ʹʩػ䡣ݿŬ췢䳡Ψһһܹӻķ䳡̨λSite 81λSite 200ĸ̨ȫλڰݿŬġ뷢̨ϼһڳСԴ;ס



UR-100 ICBMͺХػķʩ



1965419գһöUR-100NIIP-5ԳSite
130ĵ淢̨աڶ꣬Գ˽UR-100̳͵ķ侮1990Щʩ̥UR-100NU ICBMĺХŻ



R-36M ICBMķʩ



Ͷ൯ͷR-36MΪʽR-3619701980䣬ķйR-36MսR-36MΪػֻSite
109ķ侮γɹķ䡣



N-1Դ-ѩɻķʩ



N-1ľ޴ۺ1965ķʼ˽1969-1972䣬öN-1ķգȫʧˣ·ƻ1974ȡN-1ʩɣԴ-ѩķ䡣޺ķʩһЩ޴װһȫµIJ¥һȫߴԳ̨һڲԴֱ񶯵ġĦ¥Ϊѩɻһ½ܵ



춥ۺ壺



˹Ƚ춥-2Site 45ӵ80ķ̨1990һη¹ʼٵһ̨



ݿŬǰ˹ˣ



ķ׳־繲棬δı䡣ķΪӵ1901꣬ΪĪ˹ƺʲɵ·ĸˮվֵζǣķڵΪ֮Ĺ1955ķվѽһȫµij



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